Samad mir shrine

Samad Mir  (1894-1959), known for his outstanding work Akanandun (The Only Son), continued the Sufi-mystic tradition in Kashmiri poetry in the 20th century. Samad Mir has used the folk tale of Akanandun to give expression to his own mystical ideas and present a synthesis between Tassavuf (sufism) and Trika (Shaivism). He has translated spiritual experience into poerty.
Kashmiri Literature has a history of at least 2,500 years, dating back to the glory days of Sanskrit.
The use of the Kashmiri language began with the poet Lalleshvari or Lal Ded (14th century), who wrote mystical verses. Another mystic of her time equally revered in Kashmir and popularly known as Nunda Reshi wrote powerful poetry like his senior Lal Ded. Later, came Habba Khatun (16th century) with her lol style. Other major names are Rupa Bhavani (1621-1721), Arnimal (d. 1800), Mahmud Gami (1765-1855), Rasul Mir (d. 1870), Paramananda(1791-1864), Maqbool Shah Kralawari (1820-1976). Also the Sufi poets like Shamas Fakir, Wahab Khar, Soch Kral, Samad Mir, and Ahad Zargar. Among modern poets are Ghulam Ahmad Mahjur (1885-1952), Abdul Ahad Azad (1903-1948), and Zinda Kaul (1884-1965).
During 1950s, a number of well educated youth turned to Kashmiri writing, both poetry and prose, and enriched modern Kashmiri writing by leaps and bounds. Among these writers are Dinanath Nadim (1916-1988), Rahman Rahi, Muzaffar Aazim, Ghulam Nabi Firaq, Amin Kamil (1923-) , Ali Mohd Lone, Akhtar Mohiuddin and Sarvanand Kaul ‘Premi’. Some later day writers are Hari Krishan Kaul, Majrooh Rashid, Rattanlal Shant, Hirdhey Kaul Bharti, Nazir Jahangir, Moti Lal Kemmu.
Traditional events are still popular and as in the other parts of Kashmir, poetry is highly appreciated. The art of storytelling, both entertaining and educational, considered a way for the transmission of moral teachings, is valued and a rich oral literature is still alive today.
The main language of Kashmir is Kashmiri. It is said that it is a mixed language and the greater part of its vocabulary is of Indian origin and it is allied to that of Sanskritic-Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India.
Kashmiri poetry begins with the works of great mystic poetess Lalleshwari of 14th century. These sayings are the gems of Kashmiri poetry and true knowledge of yoga. These are deep and sublime. She held a key to many mystic truths. The following stanza illustrates her deep mystic thought:
“So my lamp of knowledge afar,
Fanned by slow breath from the throat of me.
They, my bright soul to my self revealed.
Winnowed I abroad my inner light.
And with darkness around me sealed,
Did I garner truth and hold Him tight.”
(Translated by Sir Richard Temple)
Lal Ded thinks dissolution of ‘self’ (Aham) essential for Realization. According to her, Sadhaka has to reach that mental attitude where there is no difference between ‘Him’ and ‘self’. She says one who considers his own self and others alike ends the distinction between ‘I’ and ‘you’, who treats days and nights alike, who is above sorrows and pleasures, can only realize God in his own self. According to her, differentiation between the human soul and Divine-self was Zero. Lal Ded is the first woman mystic to preach medieval mysticism in Kashmiri poetry. She used metaphors, riddles and other mediums for her expression.
Like Lal Ded, another mystic poet of Kashmiri language is Nunda Rishi, who is known as Sheikh Nur-ud-Din alias Sahajanand.  He has given much importance to yogic practice- breath control for communion with God. Nunda Rishi favoured good action which is the secret of happiness in the world. He preached a disciplined life like this:
Desire is like the knotted wood of the forest
It cannot be made into planks, beams or into cradles;
He who cut and telled it,
Will burn it into ashes.
He considered rosary as a snake and favoured true worship:
Do not go to Sheikh and Priest and Mullah;
Do not feed the cattle or Arkh or leaves;
Do not shut thyself up in mosques or forests;
Enter thine own body with breath controlled in communion with God.
Samad Mir, a wonderful Sufi mystic poet of our beloved soil Kashmir lived in 20th century bequeathed heavenly verses and new approaches of mystic path and divine love. His verses are poetized in great rhythm, meter, deep connotation and knowledge about human behavior, existence of life and divine love. Samad Mir continued the Sufi mystical tradition in Kashmiri poetry in the 20th century.
Almost every poet of Kashmir has used Arabic and Persian dialect in their poetry, writers of the soil are influenced by Persian and Arabic poets but Samad Mir is the first Sufi mystic poet of Kashmir who utilized Sanskrit and Hindi words in his poetry in marvelous manner, it appears he had deep knowledge, cognition and grip on the both languages. Samad Mir had never went to school and was totally illiterate but his poetry is a clean combination of Islamic Sufism, while going through his poetry even well knowing person of Sanskrit and Hindi language could not spot any kind of error, it is pretty evident that even being an illiterate Samad Mir was a man of towering ability having immense knowledge and wisdom.
Alim Gaw Alim-e-Ludni
Tchalim Shakh Aam Badni
Porum Na Kaseh Nish Toosh
Karis Aarasteh Yaari
Knowledge is, knowledge of Deity
Doubt I left when I saw my Mursheed
I did not bow for the sake of knowledge
But my beloved (Mursheed) blessed me
Sammad Mir was born at Narwara Srinagar in the year 1894 and at the age of 65 he died in the year 1959. His Aastaan-i-Aaliya is situated at Agar, nearby village of Nambalhaar. Samad Mir belonged to a Sufi family, originally they were the residents of Nambalhar (Budgam) his father Khaliq Mir was also a Sufi poet who migrated from village Nambalhar to Narwara Srinagar at young age in search of earnings. He started working in a saw mill and eventually got married; he had three sons namely Samad Mir, Rahim Mir and Muhammad Mir. Till the age of maturity of Samad Mir, the whole family rested at Narwara but at the age of twenties Samad Mir decided to return back to Nambalhar whereas the Rahim Mir stayed at Narwara and unfortunately the third brother Muhammad Mir died very young about his twenties.
Samad Mir had two sons Gh. Rasool Mir and Gull Mohd Mir (also known as Aasi, died 8 September 1980) and one daughter Rehti. In the beginning Samad Mir started working as a labour with carpenters and masons but later join his parental job of timber sawing (Aari Kash).
Samad Mir used to visit various places in connection with work, once he went to Wagur, a village in Budgam where he met Habib Najar. When Samad Mir noticed that Habib Najar is influenced by Sufism, he started conversations with him because Sufism was also running in the blood of Samad Mir. After having discussions Samad Mir was very much impressed by Habib Najar so he decided to follow his directives. This way Samad Mir became the disciple of Habib Najar.
After the death of Habib Najar Samad Mir felt he is in need of more consciousness which could end his thirst, so he started search for another Mursheed and came in contact with Khaliq Najar of Batamaloo Srinagar with whom permission he initiated to write and poetized his first verses.
Veseh Kaar Mushkil Baar Gub Goom
Vet Raw Wun Peyoom
Gulaleh Panas Kaaleh Rang Goom
Vat Raw Wun Peyoom
Oh! My friend burden of work is weighty
But I had to endure
My rosy body turned into dark
But I had to endure
After the death of Khaliq Najar, Mir was shocked and suddenly stopped to write poetry, Mir did not wrote any verse for next 13 years but still was very eager to acquire more knowledge. At last he came under the influence of Faqir Ramzan Dar at Anchidora Anantnag Kashmir who pulled out the fire of his chest and ordered Mir to transform this fire into writing poetry so he started to pen down poetry again after a long time which ended till Mir breathed last.
It is not out of place to mention that Faqir Ramzan Dar is a revered and well known Sufi saint of a historical village Anchidora. From early times Sufi Saints from other places of Kashmir love to live their lives here because it a place where so many great Sufi saints used to meditate in divine love; it is a famous village for having the burial place of numerous Sufi saints. Faqir Ramzan Dar was the resident of village Anchidora and acquired fame because of his Karamaat’s, he has shown so many mystic powers during his life, people from far away villages used to give their presence to have a glimpse of spiritual master Faqir Ramzan Dar. His tomb is housed at Anchidora where hundreds of devotees give their presence. A Karamaat of Faqir Ramzan Dar is very famous throughout area which was also shown by his disciple Samad Mir.
After the demise of Faqir Ramzan Dar and Samad Mir both families remained in close touch and maintained good relation with each other. Samad Mir’s family used to visit the grandson of Faqir Ramzan Dar namely Mohammad Shaban Dar, a well known Sufi figure and poet, who looked after the Aastaan-i-Aaliya and the present structure has been built under his supervision. Mohammad Shaban Dar left this world in 2008. Samad Mir’s son Gull Muhammad Mir also known as Aasi with his disciples used to visit their father’s Mursheed. After his death Samad Mir’s elder son Ghulam Rasool Mir still continued to bestow his presence. Khalifa’s of the order of Samad Mir till date continue to visit the Mazar Sharief and family of their Mursheed Faqir Ramzan Dar.
It is in place to mention here that I belong to the family too and Faqir Ramzan Dar is my grand grandfather, Samad Mir’s family never quitted to offer their presence in our home also. At the time of Urs Pak of Faqir Ramzan Dar thousands of devotees from different walks of life visit in turnstile numbers.
When we go through the writings of different poets of Kashmir, we come to know that most of the poets have similar thoughts but variation in presentation. But Samad Mir being the best of bests has written absolutely different concepts. When we read a complete poem it seems to be poetized on Tasawwuf while other side tells the story of this world and living being. In early years of his poetry he was criticized for writing different style of poetry but time expresses the significance, gradually Samad Mir’s poetry attained everyone’s attention and people started to study him and today everyone knows that Samad Mir is a famous, reputed and eminent poet of Kashmir, who did not practiced the previous forms but defined his own versatile thoughts.
Ya Gasseh Guddeh Keh Panas Sanun
Nateh Bale Banun Apziyoor
Nakhoon Setie Aasmaan Khanun
Toteh Ma whatless Toor
Mir Sund Seer Gasseh Gairun Sanun
Yem Devi Abrah Moor
One should understand his own self first
Or to become a liar who perceived naught speaks more
It is as difficult as to make hole in the sky with nails
Still cannot be accomplished
Mir’s secret shall be empathized by general masses
Who restraint his inner self desires
In these above mentioned lines Samad Mir wants people to know his secrets, his scarifies of material wants in the path of love, one should experience how difficult is to outlive in the path of beloved that is why Mir says, “Mir’s secret shall be empathized by general masses”, so that they become known about the condition of Mir.
He did not penned only about mystical deeds, worldly concern things etc. Samad Mir has written numerous poems on Prophets, Wali’s and Sufi Saints of Islam. A beautiful poem composed about Hazrat Adam (ASWS) in which he delineates how did Allah SWT created this entire universe started from the very creation of Hazrat Adam ASWS. In the grand honor, respect and admiration of Prophet Muhammad salallahu alayhi wasalam he has poetized so many poems magnificently and has revealed the best state of bliss for being in mediation of Prophet Muhammad salallahu alayhi wasalam. These Naat-e-Sharief are the best work done, Samad Mir has brought life to his words written in the nobility of Prophet Muhammad salallahu alayhi wasalam. His art of defining is thoroughly unique and beyond any comparison; he has used words such beautifully that reader’s heart melts within seconds. It seems that Samad Mir has burned his blood till late hours of night while writing these endearing, heart winning and mesmerizing lines.
Kad Choonei Wuchh Meh Bala, Ya Muhammad Mustafa (SAW)
Had-o-Lahad Arsh-e-Aala, Ya Muhammad Mustafa (SAW)
Naam-i-Paak Choon Heun Tchu Dushwaar, Nishi Bo Aataar Ga’s-ha
Sad Hazaar Bar Ziev Bo Chal-ha, Ya Muhammad Mustafa (SAW)
I saw you most eminent, Ya Muhammad Mustafa (SAW)
You are beyond the bounds of skies and eternity, Ya Muhammad Mustafa (SAW)
I must go to perfume seller, before reciting you Noble Name,
Thousands of times I shall rinse my tongue, Ya Muhammad Mustafa (SAW)
Har Saba Durood-o-Salwaat Tchen Ma Kar Aikh Chuh Ti Saath
Paneh Sozaan Haq Talla, Ya Muhammad Mustafa (SAW)
In every breath keep reciting Durood and Salaam
Never halt for a fleeting moment
Allah (SWT) with his angels invoke blessings and greetings on You
Ya Muhammad Mustafa (SAW)
These above mentioned lines of Samad Mir get acknowledgment from the Holy Quran also, in Sura Al- Ahzaab Ayat- 56, Allah (SWT) says:
Surely Allah and (all) His angels invoke blessings and greetings on the Holy Prophet [blessings and peace be upon him]. O Believers! You (also) invoke blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation of peace abundantly (and fervently).
Samad Mir’s time was unlike than other Sufi poets who lived before him. Earlier Sufi masters or poets most of the time used to remain in meditation, Mehfil-e-Samma or in debates & discussions with their disciples. But time had altered various kinds of inventions took place and it was the time when radio was introduced in the valley Kashmir.
Once Samad Mir was invited by his disciple Mohd Yousuf Parata (worked at Radio Kashmir Srinagar) to be the part of a multilingual literary function (Mushaira), great philosophers, writers and poets of the time were also present in the function. Everyone was waiting for the start all of a sudden it was shocking for the seated people when they saw a man on the stage wearing Feran (Kashmiri outfit garment) with a villager cap on the head. They were astonished while seeing an illiterate man holding the mike to present the programme. The function was multilingual so Kashmiri as well as Urdu writer and poets were present to recite their best Kalaams.
The function was at its zenith when Samad Mir had turn to recite his Kalaam, Samad Mir made everyone speechless when he presented a new style of writing and recited a newest poem written in both Urdu & Kashmiri language, the poem was greatly honored by the critics of the time as well as by the youngsters present in the function. The poem experienced outstanding fame in the entire valley, till date the immortal lines of the poem are memorized by almost every Kashmiri on tip of the tongue.
Padh Padh Ke Gaya Pather, Likh Likh Ke Gaya Chhur
Jiss Padney Sey Sahib Miley Who Padna Hai Aur
By studying one turns to stone and by writing got crashed
By which Deity came to know, that Knowledge is different
The most popular and accepted image of Samad Mir having mike infront is also captured in the same function of Radio Kashmir Srinagar held at Shalimaar garden Srinagar.
Present time Khalifas of Samad Mir’s chain Gh. Nabi Hundoo of Buhri Kadal, Bashir Ahmad Beigh of Safa Kadal and Gh. Rasool Mir elder son of Samad Mir oftenly visits our home. Once having conversation with Gh. Rasool Mir about his father. He said that when Samad Mir started writing poetry frequently and any thought strikes his mind, being illiterate he used to call me (Gh. Rasool Mir) and asked to write down. According to Gh. Rasool Mir, at that time he was a youngster and was not as capable to write down complete words correctly sometimes he missed words and sometimes entire lines. When his father Samad Mir used to ask him another day to recite the lines he wrote, it was almost impossible for him to read his own written words which were roughly and wrongly written which results most of the Kalaam of Samad Mir was lost in the roughly lines of his son. An inhabitant of Wagur village namely Ali Shah (known as Ali Saab) also used to write Samad Mir’s poetry.
A huge collection of his writing was written and memorized by his disciples who used to recite their Mursheed’s Kalaam in functions or in Mehfil-e-Samma. One more name, his contribution cannot be ignored, one of the best singers of Kashmir, king of Chakri (type of traditional song) Ghulam Ahmad Sofi, he remained bonded with Samad Mir for a pretty long time and has sung so many Kalaams in presence of Samad Mir in various functions.
Sag-e-Ashaaf Kahaff Laag Jaananas
Tag yeye Godeh Kaas Panas Tchai
Rag-e-Nistar Dith Lageh Har Taanas
Tag yeye Godeh Kaas Panas Tchai
Be faithful to your beloved as dog of Ashaaf Kahaff
If you can do, eliminate your shadow first
(Shadow makes you two; alter it in oneness because deity is One)
Prick anywhere in vein causes pain in entire body
If you can do, eliminate your shadow first
John Keats says that poetry gets entire fame which is poetized about ones desires, difficulties and painfulness. From hundreds of years a folk tale known as AKANANDUN (The only Son) is being dramatized as well as poetized by so many writers, artists and poets.  AKANANDUN is a story having anguish, sufferings, distress and wishes which magnetizes everyone’s intention. From decades Akanandun has been remembered and has won people’s heart residing in every corner of the valley Kashmir.
AKANANDUN (The only Son) has been written by many poets in their own style viz. Bahadur Ganie in 15th century, Ramzan Bhat in 19th century, Tara Chand (Bismil Kashmiri) in 20th century , Samad Mir and Abdul Ahad Zargar.
Besides usual poems Samad Mir is well known throughout Kashmir for his stupendous work Akanandun, he has used the folk tale of Akanandun to bestow manifestation to his own mystical thoughts. Samad Mir’s Akanandun has been penned in fourteen parts and all the characters are Hindus.
Saneh Truva Sheth Bay Chu Sheytaji Yeh Saal (1346 Hijri)
Kan Thavith Man Previth Wun Meh Haal
Akanandun Tie Hareh Suna Maal Tchuie Ishar
Jugee Galib Peer Talib Kuorr Ti Maar
This is 1346 Hijri I wrote the folk tale Akanandun
Listen carefully the story I tell is heart touching
Akanandun and his parents are just symbolic characters
Jugee (saint) is dominant, sisters are disciples
Samad Mir says that the characters in the story like AKANANDUN his father King HARNAAM, mother SUNMAAL, JUGGEE, SEVEN SISTERS etc. are just symbolic, actually he wants to express his deep thoughts about the actual relation between Mursheed and his disciple, how a disciple should forget and bury his own self for the love of his guide (Mursheed) which is also an imperative stage in Tmasawwuff called FANNA-FI-SHEIKH.

Holy grave of Baba dawood khaki rehmatullahealayh besides his murshid sultanularifeen makhdoom sahb rehmatullahealayh

 Kashmir 3rd Safar ul Muzzafar (2nd month of the Islamic calendar) is observed as Urs of Sufi saint Baba Dawood Khaki (R.A). Besides being a saint, Baba Dawood Khaki (R.A) earned repute for his scholarship. Owing to his command on Islamic literature, Hadith, fiqh, etc, he is known as Imam e- Azam Sani. He was a calligrapher, a writer, and a poet. For composing poetry of high merit, he is regarded as ‘King of poets’.

Baba Dawood Khaki (R.A) was born in 1521 A.D (908 A.H) in the Ganai family of Kailashpora Srinagar. Parents named him Daulat Dawood and ‘Khaki’ was his pen name. He lost his parents at an early age and had to face a lot of miseries. Against all odds, he received initial education at a local school, took classes in calligraphy to learn and earn. By dint of efforts and hardwork, he mastered this art. Later he had the privilege of receiving guidance from great religious personalities like – Mullah Basheer Aami, Molana Razi-Ud-din, Mulla Shamsudin Pal. Under their patronage, Khaki (R.A) learned Fiqh, Tafseer, Hadith, and emerged as a brilliant scholar and poet. Soon he was titled as ‘Mullah Daulatt Khaki’ for his impressive understanding of religious matters. Acknowledging his capabilities, Sultan Ali Shah appointed him as a tutor to his son. Soon after that, he was appointed as director of education, and finally, he reached the portfolio of chief justice of the King’s court.

He became a highly respected personality with the masses and servants surrounding him every time. He had an opulent lifestyle. Boats and horses were his means of transportation. However, after meeting Sheikh Hamza Makhdoomi (R.A) he renounced his luxurious life.

Once Khaki (R.A) was travelling through Aabi Guzar – a tributary of Nallah-mar, along with his boatmen and servants who were raising slogans in favor of Khaki (R.A). Sheikh Hamza (R.A) was involved in meditation in a mosque located nearby. He heard the noise and asked his attendants about its cause. He was told Mullah Dualat, the chief justice is on his way to court, and his admirers are sloganeering. Sheikh Hamza (R.A) instructed his disciple Baba Allah Daad to set his meeting with him. Khaki (R.A) agreed and appeared before Sheikh Hamza (R.A) with immense regard. Conversation began and Sheikh Hamza (R.A) asked a few questions – Khaki! How many times does a person breathe in 24hrs? Khaki (R.A) responded the number is equivalent to the number of Prophets, sent by God i.e., around one lakh twenty four thousand. Sheikh Hamza (R.A) asked if one breath is left unattended without remembrance of God what is the ruling of shariah on that. Khaki (R.A) replied, ‘it amounts to killing one Prophet’. Sheikh Hamza (R.A) questioned; Khaki, what about you? How your nonchalance, pine for wealth, and mundane desire will help you? Khaki (R.A) was answerless and could not utter a single word in response.These questions gave him the creeps. He had a pang of conscience. He went home and was lost in thoughts. The choice was to be made between the world and religion, luxury and austerity, and immoderation and puritanism. At last, conscience responded and finally the solution dawned on him that the world is transient and distraction from the path of truth. He prepared himself for self-mortification and went to Sheikh Hamza (R.A) to gain his company. Sheikh Hamza (R.A) deputed him to serve his disciples and to arrange water for their ablution. As hitherto-chief justice began his new journey – the journey of spirituality, everything around him changed. He omitted the prefixes ‘Mullah’ and ‘Daulat’, adopted the suffix ‘Khaki’, and Dawood Khaki as a good name.

Sheikh Hamza (R.A) would perform penance and meditation in ‘Zakir Masjid’ at Koh’e Maraan and Khaki’s (R.A) duty was to watch over. While discharging his duty, Khaki (R.A) began to think about his relinquished fame, wealth, luxury, etc. As this thought was making rounds in his mind, Sheikh Hamza (R.A) called him and said; Khaki, arrange clod of the earth (used as a purifying agent during unavailability of water) for me. When Khaki looked around, the entire Koh’e Maraan appeared golden. He was stunned, went to Sheikh, and narrated the same. Sheikh asked, could not one use gold for purification. Khaki (R.A), being a scholar replied- No. Sheikh Hamza (R.A) grinned and said why you yearn for those things, which even cannot replace lump of earth. Khaki (R.A) received the message well and demolished the foundation of his materialistic ideas. The training under the mentorship of Sheikh Hamza (R.A) purged Khaki (R.A) of all desires. The gulf between him and the world widened with every passing day. Proximity to Allah (SWT) became his only objective. He engaged himself in meditation, penance and reached the position that Sheikh Hamza confided spiritual responsibilities to him, in other words, made him his deputy. Afterward, there were gradual improvements and transformations in Khaki (R.A) and he achieved such a divine ascendance that whole Kashmir concedes his grandeur.

Even before his association with Sheikh Hamza (R.A), Khaki (R.A) had attained notoriety as writer and poet but Shiekh’s blessed companionship polished his abilities further. He has to his credit many valuable works that multiplied his fame. These include Virdul-murideen, Dastoor-ul-salikeen (commentary of virdul-murideen), Qasida Jalalia (on the life of Hazrat Makhdum Jahaniyan Jahangasht – saint of Suharwadi order), Qasida Lamiyah (about Baba Hardi Reshi). All these are famous and even at present intellectuals are benefited through them, but his virdul-murideen is highly significant. It shows his excellence in religious scholarship. Virdul murideen is compilation of 1362 verses in honor of his preceptor Sheikh Hamza Makhdoomi (R.A) which are recited in Shrines and mosques even today. In this work, Khaki (R.A) has quoted from over two hundred religious other works.

Baba Dawood Khaki (R.A) traveled far and near in Kashmir and relieved people of evils and myths. He contributed greatly in guiding thousands to the stages of the spiritual domain. He gained a massive following and became so popular that ‘Khaki’ almost achieved the status of a separate spiritual order.

In the final years of his life, Baba Dawood Khaki (R.A) had virtually renounced the world and entered into seclusion. Before his departure, he had gone to Multan to meet other exalted murshids and peers. He had become so weak that on his return he died at Islamabad (Anantnag) in 1585 A.D. (994 A.H). He was taken to Srinagar and buried in the Shrine complex of his mentor Shiekh Hamza Makhdoomi (R.A) on Koh’e Maraan (Srinagar). The shrine is one among the venerated shrines of the valley and witnesses rush of devotees throughout the year. It holds socio-economic and spiritual significance and stands as centre of spirituality for Muslim Ummah.

(Author is Publicity Secretary J&K Mushtaq (R.a) Memorial Trust and writes on diverse issues)

Shrine of Baba shukuruddin rehmatullahealayh on hilltop

The shrine of Hazrat Baba Shakoor ud din RA at spiritual sharikot hill top at watlub sopore is a spiritual marvel.
From the available sources provided to my by the shrine management I came to know that this great wali kamil had taken birth during the reign of sultan Qutub Din.From his baby hood Hazrat Baba shakoor ud din wali RA was charactered,truthfull and had a great love for Allah and his prophet,peace be upon him.He spent his time in prayers and reciting The Quran.As The saint grew up he began to work in the field.
Once his mother was carrying food for him in a big basket.On the way she met two pious who told her for whom she was carrying too much food.The mother replied that for her son who was working in the fields.The two pious gave a Quranic verse Bismillah to the woman and asked her to say her son that before eating food recite the Quranic verse before eating food.They also told her to reduce the size of the basket every day.The mother of Hazrat Baba shakur ud din wali did the same.A lot of changes began to appear in Baba shakoor ud din RA.This was indeed the begining of his spiritual journey.Once he asked his mother about the incident .The mother narrated the whole episode.Then Baba shukoor ud din asked his mother where she met these pious men.The mother pointed towords the south.On hearing this Baba started his spiritual journey and reached to Char i sharief.There he met the founder of our indigenous Rishi movement,Hazrat e Alam dar e kadhmir,Shiekh ul aalam.Hazrat e Baba shakur ud wali RA narrated the whole episode to the Hazrat e Alamdar e kashmir RA.Hazrat Aldmdar RA sent him to Ashmuqam to get benefited from the spiritual knowledge of Hazrat Zain ud din wali RA.He spent many years there to learn the mystic fibre.Latter on Hazrat Zain ud din Reshi RA dirrected him stay and mediate in the cave at the top of hill near watlab village of sopore.On the Bank of Once Asia´s largest fresh water lake “The wulur”.But today little more than a big pound.The wulur is dying unsung,unwept and unheard.
Latter on A noble and very pious Baba Reshi RA came to him and become his assistant.
He rendered meritorious service for him.Carried water on his shoulders for Hazrat Baba Shakur ud din RA.One day Hazrat Baba Shakoor ud din RA saw some wounds on his shoulders and got impressed by his greatness.

Baba payamud din reshi alias Baba reshi shrine at Tangmarg kashmir

Baba Shakoor ud din RA prayed for him.Threw the arrow and told Hazrat Baba Piyam ud din Reshi to RA to find it.Baba Piyam ud din Rehi RA reached Tangmerg ,where he found the arrow .

Holy door still there

Baba piyam ud din Reshi stayed at Tangmerg and gifted a decorated wooden Door to His Murshid,Hazrat Baba shakoor ud din RA with his spiritual power bestowed upon him by Rub e jaleel.The door got fitted itself.and is still there. .The villagers replaced the place of the door but on the next day they found it their original place.

Holy door at Baba shukuruddin shrine rehmatullahealayh

A lot of Maricles are attributed with him .once a hindu pandith,who was a goverment employ came to him.He had taken a loan and was unable to liquidate it.Hazrat Baba Shakur ud din blessed him and told him Trust in Allah.Every thing will be okay.When the pandith reached home he found all his family memers happy.Because the government had sent him a letter to join the office and collect some amount from the government .
A cow used to visit every day Hazrat Baba Shakur ud din RA.whom the saint used to take milk.Once the owner of the cow fallowed the cow and rwached to the cave of Baba shakur ud din RA.where he felt astonished on seeing the saint milking his cow bcz the cow had not given birth to any calf for last few years.He demanded the calves.Hazrat Baba Shakur ud din RA told him to go back to home and have Faith in Allah,The most merciful and the most compassionate .The owner of the cow reached home and found many calves in his cow shed.The news of this Maricle spread like a wild fire.People began to visit Hazrat Baba Shukur udin RA in crowds to get the blessings of this great Wali kamil of Rub i jaleel.Even now the shrine is thronged by the people of different castes,Creeds and colours.
It is said that In 1996 a girl from Malangom Bandipora,whose one hand was not functioning,touched the mystical door her hand became normal.there are a lot of such Maricles attributed to this great wali kamil,I learnt from the people aswell as from the literature provided to me by the shrine management .It is said that in 870 Hijri this great wali kamil dug a grave for himself and jumped into it.The grave automatically got covered.
The urs pak of this great wali kamil is celebrated on 27th of
Jamid u sani,islamic month.every year.The people in large visit the shrine with lot of hopes and wishes.A voice of tanks is some times heard near the shrine.Probably that is why He is known as “Top andaaz i kashmir.
Saw a lot of old women tying wishing rags with the ceiling .
Innumerable wishing rags were there.Hardly matching any votive rag matches with the other.From shummering cloth to dull fabric.Devotees use varities of textile to make rags easily distinguishable.Few even use polythene.The new rags overlaping the old ones.Some votive rags are even tied to door handles and window locks. I saw an old woman ,she was confident that all her wishes would be granted because of the votive rag she tied on latticed wooden railing .
I am writing about the Aulia e kiram and Buzargan e deen in my columns.I researched and found that kashmir is not known as the “heaven”
or Janat e benazeer because of her natural beauty but because it is an abode of towering and high ranked spiritual and mystical powers .
Khursheed Dar is a research scholar

Shrine of sheikh Ahmad chogli

Hazrat Sheikh Ahmad Chogli RA was the most prominent and high-ranked caliph of Hazrat Mahboob ul Aalam Sheikh Hamza Makhdoomi RA . It is said that this iconic mystic was his first disciple.No authentic record of is birth place or birth year is available .It is said that he was a native of Madina and arrived in kashmir when Hazrat Mahboob ul Aalam RA was few months old.
He was a famous scholar of his time who attained perfection in the world of spirituality by adopting more solitude. Due to his fear of God, even birds and beasts have become his friends. The abode of hazrat shiekh Ahmad Choguli RA is at Chogal in Handwara. He was the special caliph of Hazrat Mehboob-ul-Alam. He memorized the Qur’an at the age of six.He wrote a book ´Nuskhaie sultaniya´ in 980 Hijri.
The author of Tazkira-ul-Aarfeen writes that he was a high ranking saint and was an expert in all sciences. He knew many languages.Bahr-ul-Tanzil is one of his masterpieces. By reading it in depth, it can be understood that he is Mohi ud din ul-Arabi al-Thani. One day a man greeted him.The mystic had never seen this man.This dear one was Hazrat Mohi-ud-Din Al-Arabi. He said that one of the disciples of Hazrat Mehboob-ul-Aam, Hazrat Sheikh Ahmad Chogli is his Naib.
He liked the book of Sufism Gulshan-e-Raz very much. He always kept it in his pocket and read it.It is said that Hazrat Shiekh Ahmad Choguli RA has performed one Haj .
One day he went into the desert and a Chakor, large long-tailed gallinaceous bird, came in front of him which started distrurbing the mystic .. This disturbance of chakoor created a deep tenderness in his heart. The excitement came in his heart in such a way that for almost a week every day thousands of such birds kept on being born from his breath and flew towards the sky. Praise be to Allah, what is this secret?

The rank and mystical status of this iconic mystic was very high which cannot be written in words. When left for heavenly abode,Khawaja Hassan Qari from zaingair sopore got led the funeral prayer Of this great wali kamil.Unfortunately no authentic record of his date of physical departure is available.
Historian Pirzada Hassan Shah writes that he worshiped in a hillock on the hills of Zinagar for six years. In six years he did not even see the face of a man. There he made friends with beasts.After Six years Hazrat Mehboob-ul-Alam RA visited this cave and brought him out and instructed him to stay at Chogal Handwara .Pirzada Hassan shah writes that Hazrat Sultan al Aarifeen RA too accompaned him to Chogul Handwara.
Shiekh Ahmad Chogli R.A spent some time at the hill top , popular in the area as Divnal. That is why the hill top, “Divnal” has become the mediation centre for the future spiritual powers of the area.Mention may be made of Qalandar um sb yaroo ,Fanafillah Noor sb of sagipora,Qalandar Jamal sb of Pihrupet and now Qalandar las sb chogli.who is still there.
By performing hard worship, Hazrat Shiekh Ahmad Choguli RA attained a high position. During the worship, he lived on the grass of the forest. Reaching the level of perfection, he settled in Chogal Handwara,The last reting place of this iconic mystic.
His shrine is beautifuly maintained and decorated.A lot of construction has been done here.The marble staircase speaks it self.
Hundreds of Aashqaan i rasool and aasqaan e Awliya e kashmir visit the shrine every day.The annual Urs of Shiekh Ahmad choguli is celebrated in the month of October every year.Lovers and devotees throughout the length and bredith of Disrtict assemble in the shrine compound and recite Aurad e Fateha and Darood o salaam with exuberant gesture ,People bring there cooked rice and feed the hungry and the devotees on the Urs pak.
Khursheed Dar is a research scholar and can be reached at

Holy grave of hazrat sheikh Ahmad chogli rahimahumullah Handwara


A team from Kashur Sufinama and Jamaat-e-Aitqaad International under the supervision of Mr. Zaffar Ahmed Butt (Dalgate Srinagar) alias Gaasha (Nigraan of Jamaat-e-Aitqaad) visited (Chandgam) Babgaam Pulwama today (29 – August – 2020) to know about the life history of Jinab Momin Sahib (R.A). Taken All this I am daring to write in front of all of you gentlemen, I have heard this whole story from a member of the seventh generation of his descendants and then I have put it in front of you gentlemen.
بوئے اَز مُشکھ، مُشکھ اَز تا تار آو مومنسؔ اَز جانبِ عطارؔ آو
مومنو ونی کر سو کتھ پتھ رٹھ ژ زیو اَمہِ جالے نیر وونی اَتھ پھر جِلو
Whenever the names of poets are mentioned in Sufi poetry, Amin Kamil Sahib writes Sochh Kral as the first Sufi poet, but this is not true because Khawaja Habibullah Nowsheri is the first person to be recognized and passed away. There is no Sufi style in his poetry, nor does his poetry have the weight that is found in Sufi poetry.
Khawaja Sahib is followed by Momin Sahib, who was born in the Seventeenth or Eighteenth century and passed away in the last of the Eighteenth Century as their descendants told us. Momin Sahib is recognized as the Murshid of Sochh Kral, Mahmood Gaami and Karam Buland.
مومنوؔ ییتہِ نو کانسہِ ٹھہرُن یے ییتہِ مو لاگ بُتھی ہُن یے لو
بے وفا دُنیا یُن تہ گژھن یے رَژھِ رَژھِ مژھِ مَاز کھیون یے لو
The Sufi sayings of Momin Sahib are available to us in very small quantities, but a study of them reveals that Momin Sahib has been a great Sufi saint and a figure of knowledge. Kamil Sahib has also included two of his Sufi sayings in the book “Sufi Shayiri” but in the order of poems he has been included in the poems of Shah Ghafoor.
Thus, the life of a believer is an important asset for Kashmiri Sufism, but his greatest asset which he has entrusted to the Kashmiri people is a Masnavi called “Mantik-e-Atir”. The book of this name by Sheikh Farid-ud-Din Attar (1225 A.D Death) is considered to be the Bible of the Sufi sect. There are more than five thousand verses of this Masnavi available in Persian and along with it, stories and tales have also been included in it. But Momin Sahib conveyed only Masnavi to the Kashmiri people in a simple tone.
Technically, there are many shortcomings in the Masnavi, but from our point of view, the reason for this is the late publication of the Masnavi. Because we do not see any technical shortcomings in their visions and we do not see any flaws in them. What is special about this Masnavi is that it does not include “Baeth” like the ordinary Masnavi. Surprisingly, despite being the first Masnavi, this Masnavi has not been mentioned yet. The total number of poems in Masnavi is about 389.
Momin Sahib’s real name is Momin Shah and in Kashmir he is known as Momin Saeb. As Kashur Sufinama went and talked to the descendants of Momin Sahib’s descendants, it was found out that Momin Sahib had originally come from Pampore (Pulwama). It is not known where Jinab Momin Sahab actually lived. However, it is certain that they may have actually come to Babgaam (Chandgam) of Pulwama as a traveler and then settled there. Momin Sahib had many children but the names of their children are nowhere mentioned except one i.e. Aarif Sahab (R.A), also their descendants in which there are three boys and one girl which comes after them in his 5th generation. Whose names look like this. ۔ 1. Munawar Shah 2. Sahib Muhammad Shah 3. Sahib Ahmad Shah Sahib 4. Unknown (girl’s name not known). Karam Buland is said to have been a drummer. He used to come to Chandgam (Pulwama) from Wathura every year to play the same drums. At the same time, he meets the believer and after some time he accepts him as his mentor. Karam Buland, Sooch Kral, and Ibrahim Sahib grew up in the company of Momin Sahib and Momin Sahib was also the mentor of these three.
مومنؔ صاحبو ہوش کر اَنتھو ژہ تورچی خَبر
شمس چھوی پانَس اَندر مُلتان بنین کیتاہ
It is said that Momin Sahib used to perform Bhandaar every year on which he also played Damahali (drumming). Their descendants say that one of the miracles of the believer was that in the pot in which the food was prepared for the Bhandaar, if it is seen even today, it can be used to make food for the 5 people only. He used to tell his family to put my Khirqaa on this pot and serve it to the people. It is said that about 500 people were given food from this pot. What only a Wali of God can do, you can see and feel the glory of this perfect Wali and Sufi saint.

If we talk about the blessings of the Jinab Mumin Sahab, the first of them is the Qur’an which was very small (as small as a finger) but one of the features of this Qur’an was that the reader could easily read it. ۔ The second is his blessed Khirqaa, about which it is said that in the pot on which this Khirqaa was placed, about five or more hundred people used to eat from that pot at a time, which is a miracle. Those pot still exist today, but if you look, only about five people can eat from that pot. Of these blessings, the pot is the only thing that is still in the possession of their descendants. The Qur’an of Jinab Momin Sahib was also in the possession of his descendants but some time ago it was stolen. And their Khirqaa ended with the passage of time. Now they have the pot that their descendants have. All these blessings that I have placed before you are still Under Supervision of Mr. Abdul Rasheed Shah. If anyone wants to see their blessings, they can contact them.
پوررستی روز دوریر تراوو لولہ ستی دِل بھولراوو لو
ژھایہ رُوس مومنؔ صاب مایہ چانہِ آوو پانہ منز پان پرز ناوو لو
It is very sad that the condition of the holy shrine of this high-ranking Sufi saint and Sufi poet has become like an ancient ruin, as if Momin Sahib (may Allah be pleased with him) never existed. As his son told Kashur Sufinama, a team from Cultural Academy Srinagar also came once or twice but they also postponed the matter and did not pay attention to it. It is a matter of shame for all those gentlemen who claim to be Sufis but have not felt the wind of the Sufi’s “Saad”. And it is a shame even for those gentlemen who came to the shrine of Momin Sahib on behalf of the Culture Academy Srinagar but then did not pay any attention to it. It was said that all the renovations and construction of this great shrine have been done by the people of the same place at their own expense. No government official or institution took a look at this high place and put it behind it.
All this I have put before you all, I heard it from a descendant of the seventh generation of Mr. Momin Sahib, whose name is Mr. Abdul Rashid Shah Sahib, who himself is a kind-hearted and intelligent man and a very humble man.
Hazrat Momin Sahib’s Urs Mubarak was celebrated every year in the middle of July and Baand Jashn was celebrated here every year. But for some time now their Urs Mubarak has not been celebrated here because one of the reasons is militancy and the other reason is the gentlemen who put Jinab Momin Sahib behind them. Inshallah, if God wills, their blessed wedding will be celebrated in the coming years.
Note: If anyone needs any information about Mumin Sahab or wants to know something else or observe these blessings, they can contact us, i.e. any admin of “Kashur Sufinama” we’ll provide you the contact details of descendants of Jinab Mumin Sahab.


آج یعنی مورخہ ٢٠٢٠۔٠٨۔٢٩ کو کاشُر صوفینامہ اور جماعتِ اعتقاد انٹرنیشنل کی طرف سے ایک ٹیم جناب ظفر احمد بٹ عرف گاشہ (نگران جماعتِ اعتقاد) کی نگرانی میں ببہ گام پُلوامہ کا دورہ کرکے جناب مومن صاحبؒ کی زندگی کے بارے میں جاننے کے لئے گئی۔ یہ سب جو میں آپ سب حضرات کے سامنے لکھنے کی جسارت کررہا ہوں یہ سب کہانی میں نے اُن کے اولادوں میں سے چل رہی ساتویں پیڈی کے ایک فرد سے سُنی اور پھر آپ حضرات کے سامنے رکھی ہیں۔
بوئے اَز مُشکھ، مُشکھ اَز تا تار آو مومنسؔ اَز جانبِ عطارؔ آو
مومنو ونی کر سو کتھ پتھ رٹھ ژ زیو اَمہِ جالے نیر وونی اَتھ پھر جِلو
صوفی شاعری میں جب بھی شاعروں کا نام لیا جاتا ہیں تو امین کاملؔ صاحب سوچھ کرالؒ کو پہلا صوفی شاعر لکھتا ہے مگر یہ بات درست نہیں ہے کیونکہ خواجہ حبیت اللہ نوشہری وہ پہلے شخص ہے جو اس کے مانے جانے اور شاعر بھی گزرے ہے مگر اُن کی شاعری میں صوفی طرز کا رحجان نہیں ملتا ہے اور نہ اُس کی شاعری میں وہ وزن ملتا ہے جو صوفی شاعری میں ملتا ہیں۔
خواجہ صاحب کے بعد مومن صاحب آتا ہے، جو اٹھارویں صدی کے آخر میں پیدا ہوئے اور اُنیسویں صدی کے نصف میں اس دارِ فانی سے کوچ کرگئے۔ مومن صاحب کوسوچھؔ کرال، محمود گامیؔ، اور کرم بُلندؔ کے مُرشد تسلیم کیا جاتے ہیں۔
مومنوؔ ییتہِ نو کانسہِ ٹھہرُن یے ییتہِ مو لاگ بُتھی ہُن یے لو
بے وفا دُنیا یُن تہ گژھن یے رَژھِ رَژھِ مژھِ مَاز کھیون یے لو
مومن صاحبؒ کا کا صوفی کلام ہمارے پاس بہت ہی قلیل مِقدار میں دستیاب ہیں مگر اُنکا مُطالعہ کرنے پر یہ پتا چلتا ہے کہ مومن صاحبؒ ایک بُلند پایہ کے صوفی بزرگ اور معرفت کے پیکر گزرے ہے۔ کامل صاحب نے بھی اِن کے دو صوفی کلام “صوفی شاعر” کتاب میں شامل کئے ہیں مگر شعروں کے ترتیب سے وہ شاہ غفورؒ کے شعروں میں شامل ہوگئے ہیں۔
یوں تو مُومن صاحبؒ کی زندگی کشمیری صوفیزم کے لئے ایک اہم سرمایہ ہے مگر اُن کے بڑا سرمایہ جو اُنہوں نے کشمیری لوگوں کو سونپا ہیں وہ “منطقُ الطیر” نام کی ایک مثنوی ہے۔ شیخ فرید الدین عطارؒ (وفات : ١٢٢٥ء) کی اِس نام کی کتاب صوفی مسلک کی بائبل مانی جاتی ہے۔ فارسی میں اِس مثنوی کے پانچ ہزار سے زائد اشعار دستیاب ہیں اور اِس کے ساتھ ساتھ قصہ اور کہانیاں بھی اس میں شامل کی گئی ہیں۔ مگر مومن صاحبؒ نے صرف مثنوی کی بات کشمیری لوگوں تک ایک آسان لحجے میں پہنچایا۔
فنی اعتبار سے مثنوی میں بہت سی کمیاں نظر میں آتی ہیں مگر ہماری نظر سے اِس کی وجہ مثنوی کا بہت دیری سے چھپنا ہیں۔ کیونکہ اِن کے وژنوں میں ہمیں فنی اعتبارسے سے کوئی کمی نظر میں نہیں آتی اور نہ اُس میں کوئی خامی نظر نہیں آتی۔ اس مثنوی کی ایک خاص بات یہ ہیں کہ اِس میں عام مثنوی کی طرح “باتھ” شامل نہیں ہیں۔ تعجب کی بات یہ ہیں کہ پہلی والی مثنوی ہوتے ہوئے بھی اس والی مثنوی کا ذِکر ابھی تک نہیں ہوا ہے۔ مثنوی میں شعروں کی کُل تعداد لگ بھگ ٣٨٩ ہیں۔
مومن صاحب کا اصل نام مومن شاہ بتایا جاتا ہے اور کشمیرمیں اِن کو مومن صاب کے نام سے جانا جاتا ہے۔ جیسا کہ کاشُر صوفینامہ نے جانا اور مومن صاحبؒ کی اولادوں کے اولادوں سے بات کرکے یہ ہی پتا چلا کہ جناب مومن صاحبؒ اصل میں جنوبی کشمیر پانپورسے آئے تھے۔ البتہ یہ بات طے ہے کہ وہ اصل میں ایک مُسافر بن کے پُلوامہ کے ببہ گام (چندگام) میں آئیں ہونگے اور پھر وہیں پہ مکین ہوئیں ہونگے۔ مومن صاحبؒ کی کئی اولادیں رہیں ہونگی مگر اُن سب کا نام جاننا ممکن نہ ہوسکا البتہ ایک کا نام جو کہ عارف صاحب کہا جاتا ہے اور وہ اعلی پایہ کے بزرگ تھے اور اُن کی اولادوں کی اولادوں میں سے تین لڑکے جب کہ ایک لڑکی تھی۔ جن کے نام کچھ یوں معلوم ہوتے ہیں۔ ١۔ منور شاہ صاحب ٢۔ محمد شاہ صاحب ٣۔ احمد شاہ صاحب ٤۔ نامعلوم (لڑکی کا نام پتا نہیں چل سکا) اور یہ سب اولادیں اُن کی پانچویں پیڈی کے ہیں۔ کہا جاتا ہیں کہ کرم بُلندایک ڈفلیباز تھا۔ وہ ہر سال واتھورہ سے چندگام (پلوامہ) آیا کرتے تھے اسی ڈفب بجانے کے سلسلے میں۔ اسی دوران وہ مومن صاحبؒ سے بھی مُلاقات کرتا ہیں اور پھر کچھ عرصہ گزرنے کے بعد وہ اِسے اپنا مُرشد تسلیم کرلیتا ہے۔ کرم بُلند، سوچھ کرال، اور ابراھیم صاحب مومن صاحب کی صحبت میں پروان چڑے ہیں اور مومن صاحبؒ اِن تینوں کے مُرشد بھی تھے۔
کہا جاتا ہیں کہ مومن صاحب ہر سال بنڈار بھی کراتے تھے جس پر وہ دمہالی (ڈھول بجانا) بھی کراتے تھے۔ اِن کے اولادوں کا کہنا ہیں کہ مومن صاحبؒ کی ایک کرامت یہ بھی تھی کہ جس دیگ میں بنڈارکے لئے کھانا تیار کیا جاتا تھا اُس میں اگر آج بھی دیکھا جائے تو اُس میں خالی ٥ انسانوں کے لئے کھانا بنایا جاسکتا ہیں، مگر مومن صاحبؒ اپنے گھر والوں سے کہتے تھے کہ میرا خِرقہ اِس دیگ کے اُپر رکھکر لوگوں کو کھانا پروسنا۔ کہا جاتا ہیں کہ اِسی دیگ میں سے لگ بھگ ٥٠٠ افراد کو کھانا دیا جاتا تھا۔ جو کہ ایک ولیِ خُدا ہی کرسکتا ہے اس سے آپ حضرات اِس ولیِ کامل اور صوفی بُزرگ کی شان دیکھ اور محسوس کرسکتے ہیں۔
مومنؔ صاحبو ہوش کر اَنتھو ژہ تورچی خَبر
شمس چھوی پانَس اَندر مُلتان بنین کیتاہ
جناب مومن صاحبؒ کے تبُرکات کی بات اگر کی جائے تو اُن میں سے پہلے وہ قُرآنِ شریف آتا ہے جو بہت ہی چھوٹا تھا (ایک اُنگلی کے جیسا چھوٹا) مگر اِس قرآن کی ایک خاصیت یہ تھی کہ پڑھنے والا اُسے بہ آسانی اُسے پڑھ سکتا تھا۔ دوسرا اُس کا خِرقہ مُبارک جس کے بارے میں یہ کہا جاتا ہیں کہ جس دیگ پر یہ خِرقہ رکھ لیتے تھے تو اُس دیگ میں سے ایک بار میں لگ بھگ پانچ سو افراد کھانا کھاتے تھے جو کہ ایک کرامات ہیں۔ وہ دیگ آج بھی موجود ہیں مگر اگر دیکھا جائے تو اُس دیگ میں سے لگ بھگ پانچ افراد ہی کھانا کھا سکتے ہیں۔ اِن تبرکات میں سے صرف دیگ ہی ایسی چیز ہے جو اب بھی اُن کے اولادوں کے اولادوں کے پاس موجود ہیں۔ جناب مومن صاحبؒ کا وہ قرآن بھی اُن کی اولادوں کے اولادوں کے پاس موجود تھا مگر کچھ عرصہ پہلے وہ چوری ہوگیا ہے۔ اور اُن کا خِرقہ وقت گزرنے کے ساتھ ساتھ ختم ہوگیا۔ اب حال میں اُن کی وہ دیگ موجود ہیں جو اُن کے اولادوں کے اولادوں کے پاس ہیں۔ یہ سب تبرکات جو میں نے آپ حضرات کے سامنے رکھے آج بھی جناب عبد الرشید صاحب کے پاس موجود ہیں۔ اگر کوئی شخص ان کے تبرکات کو دیکھنا چاہتا ہو تو وہ اُن سے رابطہ کر کے دیکھ سکتا ہے۔
پوررستی روز دوریر تراوو لولہ ستی دِل بھولراوو لو
ژھایہ رُوس مومنؔ صاب مایہ چانہِ آوو پانہ منز پان پرز ناوو لو
یہ انتہائی دُکھ کی بات ہے کہ اِس اعلی پایہ کے صوفی بُزرگ اور صوفی شاعر کے مزارِ اقدس کی حالت ایک قدیم کھنڈر کی جیسی ہوگئی ہے جیسے کہ مومن صاحبؒ (نعوذبااللہ) کوئی تھا ہی نہیں۔ جیسا کہ اُس کے فرزند نے کاشُر صوفینامہ کو بتایا کہ کلچرالایکیڈیمی سرینگر کی طرف سے بھی ایک دو بار ٹیم آئی مگر اُنہوں نے بھی بات کو ایسے ہی ٹالا اور اِس کی طرف متوجہ نہ ہوئے۔ یہ اُن سب حضرات کے لئے باعسِ شرم کی بات ہیں کہ جو صوفیت کا دعوا تو کرتے ہیں مگر صوفی کے “ص” کی بھی ہوا اُن کو نہیں لگی ہیں۔ اور یہ شرم اُن حضرات کے لئے بھی ہیں کہ جو کلچر ایکیڈیمی کی طرف سے مومن صاحبؒ کے مزار پر تو آئے مگر پھر اِس کی طرف کوئی توجہ نہ کی۔ کہنے میں آیا کہ جو بھی اِس آستانِ عالیہ کی تجدید و تعمیر ہوئی ہیں وہ سب وہی کے لوگوں نے اپنے ہی پیسوں پر کیا ہیں۔ کوئی گورنمنٹ آفیسر یا کسی اِدارے نے اِس آستانِ عالیہ پر اپنی نظر نہ کی اور اِس کو ایسے ہی پسِ پُشت رکھ دیا۔
یہ سب جو میں نے آپ سب حضرات کے سامنے رکھا ہیں، یہ میں نے جناب مومن صاحبؒ کی ساتویں پیڈی کے ایک اولاد جن کا نام جناب عبدالرشید شاہ صاحب ہے جو خود بھی ایک صاحبِ دِل اور باہوش انسان اور بہت ہی حلیم انسان ہے سے سُنا۔
حضرت مومن صاحبؒ کا عرسِ مُبارک ہر سال جُولائی کے وست میں منایا جاتا تھا اور ہر سال یہاں پہ بانڈ جشن منایا جاتاتھا۔ مگر کچھ عرصہ سے یہاں پہ اِن کا عُرس نہیں منایا گیا کیونکہ اسکی ایک وجہ ملیٹینسی اور دوسری وجہ وہ حضرات ہیں جنہوں نے جناب مومن صاحبؒ کو پسِ پُشت ڈال دیا۔ انشاء اللہ اگر خُدا نے چاہا تو اِن کا عرسِ مُبارک آئیندہ سالوں میں منایا جائے گا۔
نوٹ: اگر کسی بھی شخص کو اِن کے بارے میں کوئی انفارمیشن صرورت ہو یا کچھ اور جاننا ہو یا اِن تبرکات کا مُشاہدہ کرنا ہو تو وہ ہمیں یعنی “کاشُر صوفینامہ” کے کسی بھی ایڈمن کے ساتھ رابتہ کر سکتا ہیں۔


This paper explores some of the recurring symbols as observed in the poetry of Shamas
Faqir, a nineteenth century Sufi Poet. The paper presents an account of how mystic thought and
mystic symbolism complement each other to foreground the universal mystic experience. The
paper is based on simple textual analysis and presents a coherent explanation of the mystic
experience irrespective of any particular theoretical framework which may be outlined by some
Key words: Mysticism, Sufism, Symbolism, Mystic Experience, Mystic union.

Shamas Faqir is a well-known nineteenth century Kashmiri spiritual whose spiritual
verses have stood test of time and have enjoyed immense success in the Kashmiri literature and
culture. Shamas Faqir is regarded as a great Sufi poet whose poetry captures the essence of
spiritual teachings in Kashmir. Shamas’s poetry is the poetry of a sufi who is lost in the bliss of

love which crosses all the boundaries of time and space. A musical quality, rhyme, rhythm,
alliteration, consonance, repetition and other stylistic devices are so naturally concentrated in his
poetic expression of Sufi experience. The Sufi poetry of this great Kashmiri poet has a deep
sense of music which reverberates in the mind of a reader or listener of Shamas. The poetry of
shamas is of universal significance and local and universal elements combined in such a
harmony that one forgets the limitations of time and space.

In Search of the Essence of Life
Contentwise, Shamas Faqir’s poetry represents a spiritual growth where a person is in
search of the real essence of the life. But the form of Shamas’s poetry is also a representation of
spiritual and artistic excellence. It is the poetry which is close to the music of a common and a
special type. The poetry of Shamas is sung today in most of the mehfils, marriages and also by
many Kashmiri singers. The true excellence of any poetry is in close relation to the musicality of
its delivery. Besides, its spiritual significance, Shamas’s poetry represents a true literary
achievement. Every word, every pause, every locution in Shamas’s poetry carries a weight and
contributes to the wholeness of his poetic expression.
Formal and Functional
Shamas Faqir’s poetry has all the features of a great art in both formal and functional
aspects. This poetry can be evaluated and analysed as per the tenets of any school of criticism
including classical criticism, Romantic criticism, modern and post-modernist school of criticism.
The artistic, religious and folk items are combined in an organic manner in the poetry of Shamas
and what a discerning reader obtains is an artistic experience of true significance. Both
linguistic and non-linguistic attributes of this poetry are satisfying, universal and cultural, moral
and religious, divine and earthly items are involved throughout the poetry of this great Kashmiri
Sufi. The musical element in Shamas’s poetry evokes and sustains a spiritual experience where
one is bound to feel a vision of ecstasy.
Shamas as a Symbolist
A prominent feature of Shamas’s poetry is the symbolism which abounds and enriches
the poetry of this great Sufi and this Sufi symbolism forms the subject matter of this paper. The

symbolism employed by Shamas in his poetry can be studied in more than one perspective.
These symbols can be studied at historical, social, political, religious and spiritual levels.
However, this paper focuses mainly on some of the recurring symbols in Shamas’s poetry. This
paper does not claim an in-depth analysis of all these recurring symbols but an attempt will be
made to present an overall account of these symbols which one encounters again and again in
Shamas’s poetry. This paper does not claim the adherence to the principles of any single school
of criticism in the interpretation of these symbols. This paper presents a general interpretation of
these symbols which are not only relevant and powerful but are common and beautiful.
Common and Simple Symbols
The symbols employed by Shamas Faqir are not complex and ambiguous but are
uniquely simple and miraculously very common. The symbols carry the load of meaning in an
effective manner and immediately catch the attention of a reader or listener in a mixture of a
simple and complex perceptual act. The simple symbols evoke a deep response in a learner’s
mind and one is involved in a deep act of contemplation as soon as one encounters these
semantically loaded simple symbols. The symbols have been used in such a manner that thinking
about a single symbol opens the way for the interpretation of the other symbols and a poetic
experience is ensured in the network of these effectively used symbols. The effective use of
symbols guarantee a poetic experience for a discerning reader of Shamas Faqir. The symbols
have been employed to foreground some of the most important universal facts in a cultural
framework. The symbolic dimensions of Shamas Faqir’s poetry gives it a uniqueness which is
quite its own and is strikingly original and effective. Some of the commonly used symbols in
Shamas’s poetry include:
1. Nothingness: The symbol of “nothingness” has a unique position in Shams’s poetry.
bI chus kenhnay khoud panay
bI kenh nay kas vanay panay
dapyoum kenh nas karay manay
vanay kenh nay kuhu zanay
bI gous sharmand pasheemany
bI kenh nay kas vanay panay.

I am myself the nothingness
I am nothingness who should I tell myself
I tried to decipher the meaning of nothingness
I shall tell you nothingness but who shall know
I felt ashamed and frustrated
I am nothingness who should I tell myself
Symbol of Nothingness Central to Many Schools
The symbol of nothingness has attracted the attention of scholars, philosophers and poets
worldwide. The concept of nothingness is central to many schools of thoughts like
Existentialism, Nihilism, Absurdism and has been widely utilised throughout the literatures of
the world. The use of the concept of nothingness as a symbol in Shamas’s poetry is highly
effective as this symbol effectively conveys the richness of Shamas’s experience which is
common, religious, philosophical, ethical,cultural and universal at the same time.
Operates in Many Levels
The symbol of nothingness operates at many levels in the poetry of Shamas Faqir and
different meanings can be attributed to its usage. The symbol of nothingness links Shamas to a
great tradition of poets’ poetry and philosophy. The expression “I am nothingness” points to the
conglomeration and convergence of self into nothingness which in turn means the presence and
absence of the phenomena of the universe. The concept of nothingness and its use can be studied
in a post modernist or deconstructionist point of view in the poetry of Shamas.
The concept given in the above lines points to the fact that the meaning of nothingness is
hard to decipher and the poet expresses the sense of shame and frustration in deciphering the
meaning of nothingness. Further, even if the poet says if he shall express the meaning of
nothingness, who shall understand the meaning of it. Thus the symbol of nothingness raises more
questions and an open ended-ness has been maintained for reader to decipher the meaning of
nothingness. The poet expresses his helplessness in explaining the meaning of nothingness. The

effect of using nothingness as a symbol is like the feeling expressed by these lines of W. B.
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; (The Second Coming: W.B.Yeats)
2. River: The second symbol which is discussed in this paper is the “river” which has been used by
Shamas in the most effective manner. All the connotative senses associated with the word “river”
come to the forefront as one experience the beauty of Shamas’s poetry and one is swept away by
the spirituality of this symbol of river. “River” as such is a simple word but as a symbol as
employed in the poetry of Shamas; this word encompasses a wide variety of meanings.
Sath samandar chI pyeth myanI tale
tath dariyavas kith bharI naav
Seven seas flow together over my head
How can I row a boat in that river?
Yath saedras katI aagur
Preth joyan chu phaeraan
katrI manzdraav yI samandar
vandiyo sar madnou
Where is the origin of this sea?
He moves over every wave of it
This sea emerged out of a drop
I shall sacrifice my life for you
Arifiy zanI muqamI Irfaan
Dariyaav pyeth saer chI nI sapdaan
An Arif (Pure spirit) knows the essence( The Pure vision)
The thirst is not quenched at the river even

katras manzay darIyav tsaav
A drop emerged from a river
and a river entered a drop
Sadri khats ladri maal gaenzrimas phaliyee
Laliyee karsay lolI mat lay
A garland of pearls emerged from the sea
and I counted the pearls in it
Oh Lali I shall shower my love to it
Life in Death
Other associated word with the river, namely, sea has also been effectively used as a
symbol in the poetry of Shamas. The above given verses clearly illustrate how the greatness of
thoughts and knowledge is conveyed through a simple symbol of river. The symbol river as
employed by Shamas expresses different kinds of meanings as is clear from the above verses. A
river is a continuum, a river is a motion, a river is a state of stature, and a river is a symbol of
death and life or life in death. A river represents being and non-being. A river is a symbol of
knowledge, a symbol of a complete whole. This river represents knowledge; this river is a mystic
river, or Keatsian Knowledge immense or Arnold’s sea of faith. Thus river as a symbol is open
ended and can be interpreted in many ways. River represents romanticism, life and death,
materialism, being and non-being and is dependent on reader’s response to this particular
3. Diamond, Pearl, Precious Stones and Pearl Necklace: One of the recurrent symbols found in
Shamas is Diamond, pearl and other precious stones. These are used symbolically and operate on
two levels in a reader’s mind. On the visible level, these symbols evoke a sense of beauty and
charm and on the covert side of it; these represent something everlasting and unique. On
examining different verses in Shamas, other connotative meanings can be linked to these
symbols. These symbols represent a unique knowledge, a perennial knowledge. The pearl or
diamond is an object of beauty and of everlasting charm and so is the mystic knowledge or
knowledge of union with the God in Shamas.

Saedras manz chuy laal taabvoniyee
sanI khoti sounyee choun dariyaav
Shining bright is a diamond in the sea
Deep and deeper are your waters
Diamond represents a destination, a goal, an end and a lover has to search it, find it and
experience it. This diamond is the beloved, the beauty, the everlasting reality in Shamas and
whose search and desire should shape every aspect of a lover.
Ha moukhtI haaro
Poukhti karan mouw rouz tschay tay
Oh pearl necklace
Don’t hide from the righteous one
poukhtI kar youd chukh noktI bozanIy
moukhtI manz vouch durdaanay
If you are righteous inhaling wisdom
Select the unique one among the pearls
bebaha sadras laal taabanay
har zari kin chuy ayaanay
The infinite sea is decked with diamonds
Every particle contains His face
The above verses clearly illustrate the symbolic greatness in Shamas’s verse where
diamonds and pearls stand for an object to be desired, to be searched and to be loved. The
diamonds and pearls represent beauty, purity, the divinity, the object of love and love itself. The
sensori-motor coordination through diamonds, pearls represent a mixture of good, beautiful,

innocent on the one hand and constant, everlasting and perennial on the other hand. Diamonds
and pearls represent the absolute and relative aspects of the divine being in Shamas. The
diamond and pearls represent the unity in duality, Shiva-Shakti, Brahma-Maya and other such
dualities. Thus spiritual concepts are presented in a very simplified manner in the verses of
Shamas Faqir.
4. Ishq, Ashiq and Mashooq (Love, Lover and Beloved): Shamas has repeatedly used the
symbols of human love, lover and beloved to represent the mystic truths of a mystic heart. The
search of a lover for his beloved and the difficulties and tribulations and tragedies a lover faces
in the journey towards beloved is used to represent the difficulties involved in the search of the
beloved. This is similar to Persian conventions of poetry and true of many British poets like
metaphysical John Donne who calls himself the bride of the God. Thus Persian tradition is
adapted in Kashmiri folklore tradition and great spiritual facts are put forward through these
symbols. The unique use of these words in symbolic terms ensures a poetic and spiritual journey
for a discernible reader. The earthly love gets transformed into the heavenly love as one reads the
verses of Shamas Faqir. The transformation occurs so naturally in the verses of Shamas.
KatI kortham Ashqun tschaloo
Walo matI mashooq deedar haav
Where have you deluded me in this love trap?
Come sweet beloved show your face
Youdvay ashaq chukh mashoaqs
Mashooq zaantan sahibe-haal
Mashooq panas seet gatchi hyonyee
sanI khoti sounyee choun dariyaav
If you are a lover to the beloved
Consider beloved to be omnipotent

Beloved must be one with the lover
Deep and deeper is your river.
Bouz ashqun doud yaar goum
Mout mashooq yaad pyoum
Love has sickened me; listen friend
Gravely I miss the sweet beloved
bI lougthas zaalI ashqinI aavlinaey
tanay chus bi divan naalo
you trapped me in this love net
wailing and crying am I since then
ashqas husnas koniy kaan
ashqan sar kour husnuk vaan
Love and beauty are from the same ore
Love has explored the shop of love
Aem ashqi naaran zoulnam badan
Partav aftaab pyoum cheshman
The fire of love burned my whole self
My eyes dazzle with the bright of the sun
Hayaat ki aab seet shehlaav
Valav mashooq deedar haav
Quench my thirst with the serene waters of life

Come beloved show me your face
bI chus shaeda taamis yaaras
mye gouv yatskaal baalyaar daeshnas
setha kaal votum intizaras
mye gouv yatskaal baalyaar daeshnas
I am dying to have his one glimpse
It has been so long to see my childhood beloved
I have been waiting since long
It has been so long to see my childhood beloved
Haa ashqI tsooro raeshkI kaerthas deevanitay
Panun aesith chukh tsI lagan begaanitay
Oh thief of love, you conceived a burning desire inside me
You are mine and still you pretend to be a stranger
The Trio Of Love, Lover and Beloved
The trio of love, lover and beloved is so inter-wined and so frequent in Shamas that one
gets surprised by the dextrous mixture of this trio in such a lucid, simple manner which is more
than rich at the semantic , the conceptual and at the philosophical levels. Love becomes a
multidimensional entity in the hands of Shamas with multiple meanings at the connotative level.
The mystic quest, the mystic struggle, the fana(self annihilation) aspect of the Sufi is pictured in
these verses. Love becomes an instrument of the search of the truth. Love becomes an entity
where lover and beloved merge into one another. The worldly love overlaps with the haqeeqi
love (the Divine love) in the verses of Shamas and this symbol also remains open ended at the
hands of Shamas. In other word, love becomes the essence of love and this worldly love gets
transformed in that worldly love. The unique usage of these symbols speaks of the artistic

greatness of Shamas which presents mystic struggle, mystic journey and mystic path in such
familiar terms. These simple words carry such heavy loads of meaning and remain open ended to
be interpreted in newer and more new ways by the discerning readers of Shamas.
5. The symbol of Feminine Beauty: One of the most common symbol used in Shamas is feminine
beauty. Different aspects of feminine beauty in Shamas represent different spiritual qualities.
These symbols are used in such a way that a reader consciously or unconsciously transits the gap
between physical and spiritual world. On encountering these symbols, one is immediately
transported to spiritual world where different qualities surround a reader in a mystic play. A
physical symbol or a physical correlate of human beauty is mapped on to some spiritual quality.
Apparently Shamas speaks of the beauty of eyes, lips, ears, cheeks, hair but in actuality, it is the
description of a spiritual quality, it is an objective correlate of some deeper spiritual truth.
SurmI cheshman chuy khumar
harnI karithakh yats bemaar
your eastern eyes are with puffiness
giving a heartache to a beautiful dare
zi roukhsar mah taabaan
gatI manz kyah gah pevaan
Your two cheeks are two shining moons
wonderful shine is born in this dark
dand moukhtI vouth rats phali
kathav chanev kaer totI kali
Your teeth are pearls with lips so beautiful
Even parrots can’t compare your sweet talk
maenzi rangI met athi khour

shamas faqirouv shaed bar
Hands and feet are coloured with hina
Shamas Faqir celebrate this joy
khaal wa zulfav kourham sham
sar ti pay valni aam
Your skin and hair engaged me immensely
I was overwhelmed with your unique beauty
dand kandI phael kyah chi ritiyee
asi voun gounchee dahaan
How beautiful are your pearl like teeth
An opened rose is your smiling mouth
kad nazneen choun kya shooban
rumI zaevij chaen bumI kamaan
Your maiden height is so graceful
Beautifully thin is your arch like eyebrow
kanI dooran sonI jalar
donivay chakh alIraan
gah chu travaan gaashi ambar
vandiyo sar madIno
A golden net over your ear rings
You move these ear rings in such a grace

The brightened sky emits lights unique
I shall offer my head for your sake
tschaay kaesith voulthas mayi vaesiyee
kanI dooran may maar grayi vaesiyee
You lured me by waving off the shades
Don’t move your ear rings my lady friend
laal lab kya chi rehmatiyee
naeri latiyee rouv karaan
The red lips are a blessing disguised
Lati! Leave this abode in a joyous dance
Shamas uses the aspects of feminine beauty as a correlate of some spiritual quality whose
effect is felt by any reader and when put to music, the transformation from the physical to the
spiritual world speeds up. The spiritual beauty is portrayed through feminine beauty. The physical symbols are mapped on to some abstract spiritual entities in the verse of Shana’s faqir. These symbols of feminine beauty are the vehicles whose destination is a land of

surprises and a land of spirituality. The physical beauty gets dissolved in a spiritual plane as one
reads the verses of Shamas Faqir.
6. Darkness as a Symbol: In addition to light or divine light in Shamas, what is of primary
importance is the symbol of Darkness or blackness. Black has been used as a symbol of many
mystic and Islamic facts. The use of black as divine and secret can be approached from a post
modern point of view where divine light is replaced by the darkness as darkness is presented as
the origin and container of the divine light. The darkness or black is used in a special way in the
poetry of Shamas and can be described to be used in a post modern manner where it stands for
secret aspects of the religion.
Siyah chu bag siyah chu kul

Siyah yasman siyah sumbul
Black is the garden; black is the tree
Black is yasman1 black is sumbal2
Siyahi seet doun gouv milaav
valov mashooq deedar haav
The darkness caused the union of the two
Come beloved and bestow me with your vision
Siyah manz chu aabe hayaat
Siyah nuras dapan nurI zaat
The darkness contains the life giving water
The black light is called the light of God
Siyahi manz chu gashuk basaav
Valav mashooq deedar haav
The light is a resident of darkness
Come beloved show me your face
The above verses clearly point out to different dimensions in which darkness and
blackness has been used by Shamas to represent many secret truths. The darkness and black
represents a number of mystic secretes. In Shamas’s world, the garden, the flowers are dark. The
Darkness is the source of light, the dark is the destination for the Divine Union, the dark is the
source of the waters of life, the dark is the nuur (Light) of God himself and dark is the container
of the universe. Thus again a post-modernist vein can be discerned in the verses of Shamas or in
the mystic universe of Shamas where the light is substituted by dark as dark represents many
aspects of the reality in the verse of Shamas. The deconstructionist strain is apparent where the

darkness serves as the fountainhead of the waters of Life (aabe-hayaat) and where darkness
stands as the source of light.
7. Bird Symbolism: One of the recurrent and most important symbolisms in Shamas is that of bird
symbolism. A variety of birds have been used by Shamas in a symbolic way sharing some of the
features of universal nature as well as some cultural specific features. A bird is a symbol of
innocence, flight, imagination, desire but in Shamas birds are used to represent many of the
secrets associated with the mystic or Sufi philosophy of life. Some of the birds as in Shamas
include hoopoe, crow, owl, King vulture and pigeon among others.
Zani kus amis hud hudas
Taaj kyah shooban chus kalas
Who can know this hoopoe?
The crown on it’s head is so enchanting
Thaevmas shech athi kaavas
tsI van ratI mouglas logus daavas
I left a message with the crow
Tell the owl that I am on stake
Khabardaeri zikirchi hudhudas
m’e gov yats kaal balI yaar deshnas
Awareness is zikr (remembrance of God) to the hoopoe
I have not seen my childhood beloved from times immemorial
Dilkuy doukh doud pritchoom kavas
Kaavov myenis yaaras van
Taav Taav kornay sir gouv faash

m’e haa gaey ashqI vaalI vaashay nael
I asked the crow about pains and grief of heart
Oh crow tell my beloved friend
The crow could not keep the secret of love
I was trapped in the net of love
Vairaan bounI hyend hairaan kaavov
Vantou athI kyah aavo lo
Oh estranged crow of a desolated Chinar
Tell me what we got from it
Shamas Faqiro maney tsaroo
Razi hounzas chuy mukhtIharo
Shamas Faqir decipher the meaning
The king vulture has a pearl necklace
Ashiq mashooq raazI hounz moukhtay
yithI taelib matloobay
Shamas Faqiras siit kulI aalmay
Raaz hounz manz chuy jamI jamas
The lover and the beloved are king vulture and the pearl
as if the seeker and the seeked
The whole universe is one with the Shamas
The king vulture is inside the supreme wine cup

Ashiq bulbul gulzar chaavanay
Raaz hounz manz chuy jamI jamas
The lover bulbul enjoys the flowers around
The king vulture is inside the supreme wine cup
The use of bird imagery can be interpreted in literal, cultural, religious, philosophical and
mystic ways. The hoopoe is a famous bird in Sufi literature representing the most courageous
and the most devoted traveler of the Sufi path. Similarly, the crow has different cultural
connotations in Kashmiri culture and Islamic religion. In the above verses, hoopoe is presented
as a bird with many adorable and much wanted qualities as poet says that who exactly knows this
hoopoe i.e., it represents a true Sufi whereas crow is represented as someone who cannot keep
the mystic secret to himself and like an estranged crow of desolated chinar remains lost forever.
The king vulture is a recurring image in Shamas and is paired with pearls almost everywhere in
the verses of Shamas. Thus, a discerning reader obtains the insights about the mystic path and
requirements of a true mystic in bird symbols as utilized by Shamas in his poetry.
8. Wine, Wine House, Wine Fetcher, Music and Melody: Like Persian Sufi literature, the
symbols of wine, wine house, wine fetcher, music and melody abound in the verse of Shamas.
These symbols represent different stages of a mystic path. The mystic quest, the mystic search,
the mystic union, the mystic bliss, the mystic struggle, the concept of fana (annihilation of self)
and baqa (Life in God) are represented by these symbols in a comprehensive and expressive
mekhanI andar gouvum nida
change-rabaab saaz o nava
I was called from the inside of the winehouse
It was Chang and rabbab, music and singing
adI mouy chovum damI damay

az dramay tamanna
Then I drank wine moment after moment
Today I witnessed the fulfilment of my desire
maer maer chum zindagi devan
mouy chus chevaan mouy chus chevaan
He bestows me with life by killing me again and again
The wine I drink, I drink the wine
poukhtI kaar faraq kar shaeran tI shaalan
chovnas mourifat mouy
Oh righteous man, differentiate a lion from a lamb
He made me drink the wine of marifat (Oneness with God)
aem kalvaalan chaevnas mouy mouy KhanI taey
Phir phir m’e ditnam pay dar pay paymanI tay
The wine fetcher made me drink the wine and the wine house
He served goblets again and again in a sequence
maer maer chum zindagi deva
mouy chus chevaan, mouy chus chevaan
He bestows me with life by killing me again and again
The wine I drink, I drink the wine
adI mouy chouvum damI damay
az dramay tamanna

Then I drink wine in a stately manner
today my desire bloomed itself
tanI chus pannuy maaz khevaan
mouy chus chevaan mouy chus chevaan
From that moment I eat my flesh
The wine I drink, I drink the wine
mouy Shamsas damI chaavay
Bouz naavay rouvvayee
He will make me drink wine vigorously
He will make us listen to the musical dance
Zaero bum tamI shayi gouv gumay
Yeti su chumay tatI su chumay
The music and lyric vanished at that place
He is there where He is
The above verses clearly illustrate the bliss a mystic receives in Union with the desired
goal. The wine represents achievement of that goal and a talib or one who searches the rehbar or
guru is blessed once he receives the vision of the absolute. Similarly, the music, musical dance in
the above verses represent the Sufi ecstasy and Sufi bliss which one receives on witnessing God.
His thirst is quenched with the wine of marifat (oneness with the God) and he experiences the
mystic bliss.

From the above discussion of symbols in Shamas, it becomes obvious that Shamas as a
symbolist is successful as an artist in terms of the open ended-ness which his symbols possess.

Another success as an artist lies in the dexterity with which Shamas extracts meaning from the
day to day words like river, love, beloved, crow etc. The philosophical, religious, cultural and
Sufi dimensions are inter-wined in such a manner that guarantees a literary experience for the
reader of the Shamas. Shamas as an artist is an artist of details and in presenting a detailed
description of the experience; he is more like the pre-Raphaelite poets. The worldly love and
divine love go hand in hand and a post-modern narrative is created in Shamas. The dextrous use
of symbols in addition to use of many stylistic devices like parallelism, repetition, use of
metaphors, similes, synonyms and antonyms render a great artistic value to the verses of Shamas
and make it a unique contribution to art as well as mystic literature.
These symbols have metaphorical, paradoxical and post-modern dimensions and operate
on physical and spiritual planes in a usage characterised by dialectical oppositions which create
an artistic experience immersed in spiritual, physical and metaphysical waters. The open ended
and day to day nature of these symbols provides a unique experience to the discerning reader of
Shamas Faqir.
End Noes:
1. “Yasman” is the Persian name of a scented flowering plant, is a given feminine name and
means ‘Gift from God’.
2. “Sumbal” is a local flower found in Kashmir.
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Consciousness. E.P.Dutton and Co.: London. 1911.Print.
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—Worship.Eagle Publishers:New York. 2000.Print.
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Dr. Sajad Hussain Wani, M.Phil., Ph.D. in Linguistics
Department of Linguistics
University of Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir

Article at Language in India ISSN 1930-2940 Vol. 16:2 February 2016

Abstract: Mysticism as a point of view has its basis in the total knowledge of the only source
and substratum of the whole existence, a knowledge that is attained through the revelatory
experience during a rare moment of the neatness of contemplation. An exclusive tradition is
formed by those who opine to have experienced this direct revelation. Through the teachings
of the great philosophers and prophets a persistent philosophy of mysticism has floated up time
and again. Kashmir has been famously called a “Peer Vaar”, land of saints; one among them
was Lal Ded, a renowned fourteenth century poet. In this paper an endeavour has been made
to discover the mysticism in the poetry of Lal Ded. Her poetry is a conjunction of Saivism and
Sufism. The religious stupor in her Vakhs demonstrations the mysticism that is apprehended
by a female poet of the fourteenth century wherein the influence of Muslim interruption was
very strong in the valley. Her poetry not only exults the power of the Almighty but also attacks
inhuman treatment that she got from the society due to her migration from the ordinary chores
and pleasures of life. The man subjugated society attempted to subdue Lal Ded and her poetry.
Even the historians seem prejudiced as they do not write about Ded. Still, Lal Ded appears as
one of the central voices in the tradition of Indian female mystics.
Keywords: Mysticism, contemplation, Saivism, endeavour, mystics,..etc

Shrine of LAL ded bijbehara

Lal Ded (1320-1392), born in Padmanpur near Pampore, Pulwama was a fourteenth
century poet. There are various appellations associated with her name like Lalla, Lalarifa,
Lalleshwari and Lalded. Today, she is a renowned and one of the most respected woman saint
poets of Kashmir. Married at the age of twelve, she lived an unhappy and miserable married
life. She left her in-laws at the age of twenty four for sanyas (renunciation). Influenced by the
Shaivite and Sofi schools of thought she gave up gave up ordinary pleasures and pursuits to
know God.
She became a Sofi saint apart from being a mystic of Kashmiri Shaivite. She created
the mystic poetry called Vakhs (literally sayings or speech). A Vakh is a quatrain; structures
around a theme popularly associated with Lal Ded called ‘Lal Vakhs’. Her poetry is considered
as the earliest and plays an important part in the Kashmiri literature. Her vakhs represent the
best teachings for mankind in the modern world. These quatrains represent the urge of human
soul to be one with almighty and the relation between the created and the creator. Her poetry
is a treasure of wisdom and insight, love, truth and peace. It is also rooted in humanism. Her
vakhs have been translated into English by Richard Temple, Jaylal Kaul, Coleman Barks,
Jaishree Odin and Neerja Matoo. Mita Vashisht, the famous actress has performed a solo play,
based on her life, in English, Hindi and Kashmiri, all over India, titled ‘‘Lal Ded’’.
Fourteenth century was the age of orthodoxy, where a woman was considered as an
inferior ‘other’ to a man. The orthodox traditions of child marriage and other social evils pushed
woman further behind in social, political, familial and other peripherals of the day. Suppressed
by the social dominance of patriarchy, female voices of the century emerge rebellious or speak
up into the religious credence. Religion was the only source that gave them solace from the
societal dominance of the day. Summarily, Pathak in his book comparative Indian English
Literature discusses religion as a safe escape for the women who suffered at the hands of
patriarchy of the day, where they make themselves safe from forced sexual slavery and
household responsibility:

Religious escapism was the only way out for many women whowere frustrated with life inside
the home. They chose to join theBuddhist Sangha in their attempt to break away from the social
world of tradition and marriage.Thus emergedpoems and songs about what it meant to be free
from household chores and sexual slavery. ( Pathak: 2008: 184)
Lal Ded’s poetry is an effort to tress-pass between the susceptibility of doubt and a
pledged insight attained through eagerness and experience. It prizes clarity of self-knowledge
above both the ritualist’s mastery of observances and the severe’s professional championship.
Her poetry laughs at the sages who substitute experience with scripture on the one hand and
the priests who try to find God in daily work on the other; it discards the renegades revert
dilapidation of body. In her poetry Lal emerges as wanderer; a free being in pursuit of shelter
attaining freedom of mind and soul. She is the prototype of a merger of poetic and religious
experience. In his essay “Modern Poetry and Christian Tradition” Amos Wilder says “Poetic
experience and religious experience areprofoundly and intimately related to each other if not
consubstantial, and religion requirespoetry in discourse.” (Wilder: 1965: 688)
Lal Ded is undoubtedly Kashmir’s best female poet. She has been acclaimed in the state
of Jammu and Kashmir, and in India and abroad as well. She is the perfect example of the
hybrid identity of Kashmiri culture. The Muslims and the Hindus have revered her equally. But
the turmoil of the recent decades in the states has penetrated that welded culture as well. The
religious confluence of lad Ded’s poetry has been captured in his book I Lal Ded: the Poems
of Lal Ded by Ranjit Hoskote. He writes:
Religious identities in the region have become harder and moresharp edged, following a
substantial exodus of the Hinduminority during the early 1990s, and a gradual effort to
replaceKashmir’s unique and syncretically nuanced tradition of Islamwith a more Arab centric
global template. It is true that Lal Ded was constructed differently by each community, but
shewas simultaneously Lallesvari or Lalla Yogini to the Hindusand Lalarifa to the Muslims;

today, unfortunately, these descriptions are increasingly promoted at the expense of oneanother.
In honour of the plural sensibilities that Kashmir haslong nurtured, I will refer to this mystic
poet by her mostcelebrated and non-sectarian appellation “Lal Ded”. In thecolloquial, this
means “Grandmother Lal”; more literally, itmeans “Lal the Womb”, a designation that
connects her to hermother goddess whose cults of fecundity and abundance fromthe deep
substratum of the Indic religious life. In writing of herin this book, I will also use the name by
which she is mostpopularlyand affectionately known, across community lines: Lalla. (
Hoskote: 2011: x)
Simon de Beavoir in her book The Second Sex (1949) has famously asserted “One is
not born but rather becomes a woman”. This statement implicitly and explicitly refers to the
suppression of woman: her association to her gender roles. Women have been the victim of the
sexual-textual politics so has been Lal Ded ages before VirginiaWoolf could imagine the plight
of ‘Shakespeare’s Sister’ in her famous essay, “A Room of One’s Own”. Lal Ded suffered
humiliation. People would call her names. Many people thought she was insane. Also she had
a frustrating married life that she could not endure long. She has met a severe discrimination
at the hands of the historian of the subsequent centuries too, and this list includes Jonaraja,
Srivara,Prajyabhatta, Shuka, Haider Malik Chadura, Tahir and Hasanbin Ali Kashmiri. For
instance, Ranjit Hoskote makes it clear in the introduction of hisbook, I, Lalla: The Poems of
Lal Ded: Although Kashmiri historians produced numerous records oftheir country’s recent
past between the fifteenth andseventeenth centuries—this roster includes Jonaraja,
Srivara,Prajyabhatta, Shuka, Haider Malik Chadura, Tahir and Hasanbin Ali Kashmiri—none
of them mentions Lalla.” (Hoskote:2011: xv)
There is famous legend associated with Lal Ded:
Once a shop keeper, a cloth dealer, admonished a group of street urchins (who called
Lal names and thought her mad) and drove them away. Thereupon, Lal Ded asked him to give
her a long piece of cloth which he did. She cut it into two equal lengths and placed each length
on either of her shoulders and went her way tying knots on one of them when people bowed to
her, and on the other when they showed disrespect to her. In the evening, she came back to the
cloth dealer and asked him to weigh the two lengths of cloth. They weighed the same,
irrespective of the number of knots in either of them. Lal Ded smiled and said:
Their barking means nothing to me.
Even if they came with soul-flowers to offer,
I couldn’t care less. Untouched, I move on.
Lal Ded’s total poetry became a means for her praise to God, the lord. Every single
verse of hers may reflect a deep sense of devotion towards the Creator. Not only her deeds but
every word that she uttered becomes the worship of the lord. Her tongue became a rosary that
kept on moving every second in praise of the God. Her whole being did not stop for a minute
to drink from the well of knowledge to know that Being. Her life was an endeavour of learning.
She thought that her every experience became a devotion to the lord and all these endeavours
led her to illumine her path and become one with Nature. She says:
“Whatever work I did become worship of the lord
Whatever word I uttered became mantra
Illumining my path to parma saiva”
In her deep seated devotion of the Lord she became a rebel and revolutionary. Her
poetry, the famous Vakhs vehemently reject the ritualistic practices of idol worship, animal
sacrifice and fasting for any kind of ostentation. For her this whole universe is the supreme
creation of the absolute Creator and none else has a hand in this work of the supreme lord. Her
verse ‘the idol is but stone/the temple is but stone/from top to bottom/all is but stone/whom
will you worship, all is but stone’ are echoed in twentieth century by Tagore in his prose
renderings of the noble prize winning Gitanjali: ‘Leave this chanting and singing and telling
of beads! He is there where the tiller is tilling the hard groundand where the path-maker is
breaking stones. What harm is there if thy clothes becometattered and stained? /Meet him and
stand by him in toil and in sweat of thy brow.’
Her vakhs are a dominant voice of her pursuit and experience of self also. She denies
any ritualistic practices of fasting. According to her fasting and any ceremonial rites do not
reveal any right action. Neither do bodily comforts emit it also. She voices,
‘O fool, right action does not lie
In fasting and other ceremonial rites
O fool right action does not lie
In providing for bodily comfort and ease
In contemplation of the self alone
Is right action and right council for you’
Her body is also the site for her self-refinement. Through her body she believed she
could have cosmic and physical and physical experiences. She also longs for the perpetual
experience of the Divine. Her pursuit has been to experience the external world as well. Richard
Lannoy, a cultural theoristand historian showcases the combination of Indic philosophy and
the spiritual practices of themystics and philosophers. He rightly opinions:
Each successive school of philosophy, each mystic, sage, orsaint, sought by one means or
another to appropriate theexternal world to the mind-brain. He enhanced, expanded, intensified,
and deepened his sensory awareness of colours,sounds, and textures until they were
transformed into vibrationscontinuous with his own consciousness. In this state ofenhanced
consciousness induced by special techniques ofconcentration, the inside and the outside, the
subject and theobject, the self and the world, did not remain separate entitybut fused in a single
process. (Lannoy: 1971: 273-74)

Lalla Ded is a household name in Kashmir. Her Vakhs are reverberated by every
Kashmiri. She has been a profound influence on many Kashmiri poets. Some of the famous are
Parmanand (1791-1879), Shamas Faqir (1843-1904), Krishna Joo Razdan (1851-1926) and
others. There has been a vide spread debate about her Shaivite and Sofi tastes. Muslims
consider her a Sofi poet and Hindus think she was Shaivite. But Lalla is a prototype of both.
She is a Sofi as well as a Shaivite. She has been of profound influence to the famous Kashmiri
religious reformer, poet of Shruks (witty statements) and founder of Sufism Sheikh Nur-ud-din
Wali, the Alamdar-i Kashmir. There is a famous legend of Lalla related with the sheikh: when
the Sheik was born he did not suck from his mother’s breast, however, when Lalla came by she
asked to the infant, “yanna zenna manchaawuk chana kath chuk manchan”, you were not
shamed to be born, why are you then shy of sucking from the breast of your mother, hence, the
infant Sheikh started to drink from the breast.
IJELLH Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2018 647
De Beauvoir, Simon. 1949. The Second Sex. United Kingdom. Penguin.
Hoskote, Ranjit. 2011. I, Lalla: The Poems of Lal Ded. New Delhi. Penguin Books.
Lannoy, Richard. 1971. The Speaking Tree: A study of Indian Culture and Society. Oxford.
Oxford University Press.
Pathak, A. N. 2008.Comparative Indian English Literature. Kanpur: Bhaskar Publications.
Rafiqui, Abdul Qayoom. 1997. Sufism in Kashmir (Fourteenth to the Sixteenth century).
Sydney: Australia Goodword Media.
Smith, Paul. 2016. Three Great Sufi Poets of Kashmir: Lalla Ded, Nund Rishi, Ghani Kashmiri:
Selected Poems. New Humanity Books, Book Heaven.
Tagore, Rabindranath. 1910. Gitanjali. New Delhi. Penguin Books.

In “Javid Nama in the course of their celestial journey Rumi and Iqbal meet the spirit of Hazrat Syed Ali Hamdani. Rumi introduces the saint Hazrat Ali Hamdani in the following terms:

“The Syed sublime, noble of nobles,
Ghazali himself learned the lesson of ‘God is He’
And drew meditation and thought from his stock,
Guide he of that emerald land,

A king ocean-munificent, to that vale
He gave science, crafts, education, religion,
That man created a miniature Iran With rare and heart-ravishing arts;
With one glance he unravels a hundred knots.”

As Hazrat Ali Hamdani can unravel a hundred knots with one glance, Rumi advises Iqbal to put his difficulties before the saint and seek his advice. Iqbal asks Hazrat Ali Hamdani:

“How is it that God wants us to do good, and at the same time he created Satan who presents the evil in a beautiful form and tempts us to do evil and disobey God? O saint, tell me, why did God create Satan?”

Hazrat Ali Hamdani replies to the question as follows:

“God has created Satan, so that Man may resist his blandish¬ment, and as a result realise his ‘Self’. If a man falls a victim to the blandishments of Satan he is undone, but he who can wrestle with Satan wins glory. Man is like sword, and Satan is like whetstone. You should strike against Satan with full force, and the harder the stroke the sharper will be your sword. It is thus because of Satan that Man can realise his ‘self’, and rise to perfection.”

Then Iqbal talks to Hazrat Ali Hamdani about Kashmir and its people. Iqbal says that his soul burns for the people of Kashmir. They are a clever and handsome people. Their dexterity is proverbial. Yet they have lost their selfhood and have become strangers in their own land. Through servitude their aspirations have died, but they were not always like that. At one time they were very valiant, heroic, and ardent in battle.

The mountains of Kashmir are clothed with snow. The chinar trees are red. In the spring time the valley is drenched in colour. Iqbal tells the saint that he happened to visit the beautiful Nishat garden in Srinagar. There he saw a bird perched on a tree which sang that because of the servitude of the people the spring was not worth a penny. Then Iqbal sighs and says that all such servitude is because the British sold the land of Kashmir by the treaty of Amritsar to Gulab Singh for a paltry sum of Rs. fifty lakh. Addressing the wind Iqbal says:

Zephyr, if you should pass over Geneva Speak a word from me to the League of Nations:
They have sold farmer and cornfield, river and garden,
They have sold a people, and at a price how cheap.”

Shah-i-Hamdan addresses Iqbal as follows:

“My son, I will tell you of a subtle mystery. The body is of clay, and it must perish some time. The soul is an illumination; it is from God, and it will not perish. If you suppress the soul, you die even when you are alive. If your soul is illumined with vision you live even after your death. The people who are in bondage have their souls suppressed. If you want to break these chains, let your soul assert itself.”

The message that the saint gives is ‘Discover your self”. He says:

“Not to discover one’s self is not to exist,
To discover is to bestow the self on the Self.”

Then Iqbal puts another question to the saint. The question posed

“We are poor men, and the ruler demands tribute;
What is the origin of the sanction of throne and crown?”

Shah-i-Hamdan says that the origin of authority Is either the con¬sent of the people or conquest in war. Shah-i-Hamdan praises Iqbal for his stimulating poetry, and gives a message of hope. He says:

“Your cry is a bell urging the caravans;
Why then do you despair of the dwellers of the vale?
Their hearts are not dead in their breasts;
Their embers are not extinguished in the ice;
Wait till you see, without the sound of the Trumpet;
A nation rising out of the dust of the tomb.”

Shah-i-Hamadan assesses Iqbal and his poetry in the following words;

“Though your lancet has pierced men’s hearts,
None has perceived you as you truly are;
Your melody springs from a poet’s song,
But what you utter transcends poesy.”

The fertile soil of Kashmir has produced a galaxy of Sufi poets. who rendered meritorious service to the society and whose contribution in Kashmiri language and literature is remarkable. I wonder to see a good number of Sufi poets and spiritual powers of kashmir have come from the Kral ,Khar or Najar backgrounds.wahab khar,soch kral etc are the glaring examples.
Sufi poetry has played a ‘very important role’ in reflecting the pain and suffering of people in Kashmir for a long time and its distinct way of communicating the expression has no parallel. Indeed,Sufi poetry is responsible for keeping the Kashmiri language and literature alive.
One of such a great mystic poet was Soch Kral . Born in 1775 at a Koel , Pulwama, Kashmir.
Soch kral was from the mystic background. His father Arif Kral was a disciple of Kashmiri poet Mumin Sahib.His mother´s name was Zooni. His parents were very pious and noble It’s said that Arif Kral and his wife Zooni had no child. After fifteen years of their marriage, a fanafillah arrived in the village saying “Does anyone need a child?”. Arif Kral listening to this left his work and went to him. The mystic gave him two sugar-coated candies one for Arif Kral and another for his wife, Zooni, on a condition that child will be given back to him after twelve years. The parents agreed on this condition. A male baby was born to them whom they named Ismail. After some years the Fana fillah arrived in the village and asked Ismail his name. He suggested Arif Kral name Ismail as Soch Kral. It is said that this mystic after twelve years as per the condition took Soch Kral from Koel to Inder Pulwama. Thus began the mystic journey of the great son of the soil.
Soch kral was too much interested in poetry. His father Arif Kral sent him to school but soch kral showed no apparent interest to attend the school or his classes. So his father Arif kral insisted him to help him in his generations-old potter profession. In this way, Soch kral began to sell the terracotta pots. The terracotta industry taught him valuable lessons.
Soch kral had never been in school but he had a good hold in the Persian language. He spoke the language of the common people and used poetry as a too tool to pass his message of truth to the people. Soch kral was abid and parheez gar. He had no lust for worldly comforts and pleasures. He preferred to live a simple life and attained the highest spiritual status.
A number of miracles are attributed to Sufi poet Soch Kral . It’s said that the Some people of Ratnipora vicinity were unhappy to see the huge rush of people flocking to Soch Kral for spiritual healing. They started a hate campaign against Soch kral sb. A number of tricks were used to defame this great mystic poet but Soch kral remained silent.
once more than a hundred people assembled by these people to have lunch and tea at Soch Kral’s residence without informing soch kral sb. His wife was shocked. She was only to be assured by Soch Kral that everything will be fine. The tea vessel never got empty despite people having four-five cups of salt tea. Similarly, lunch was served to those in the house, making those understand the mystic powers of Soch Kral.
After some time another Karamat happened when Soch Kral was in Ratinpora to sell his earthen pots. He saw a group of people dragging a dead Bull from the area and when he asked them the reason, they laughed and replied, “Don’t interfere in our matter. This Bull has a credit of his master and he died without returning his master’s credit”. Soch Kral looked towards the Bull and said, “O Bull get up by the order of Allah and return the credit of your master”. The entire Ratnipora was astonished to see the bull coming to life again and rushing towards his master. This Karamat didn’t go well within the Peers who thrashed him on the next day of this incident. It’s believed at this moment, Soch Kral prayed: “Ya Allah Chararas (Chrar-i Shareef) Kar Thhop Tae Ratinporis Hya Tchoup” (block the Charar-i Shareef and bite the Ratinpora). Legend has it that there was a massive fire in Charar-e-Shareef area in Budgam which got extinguished immediately after the prayers and one log flew and fell into a house of a Peer at Ratinpora and all the houses of Peers were gutted in the fire. After this incident Peers apologized to Soch Kral.
Soch kral’s poetry is so impressive and only those who are tethered with Sufism can try to know its magnanimous strength.
dapyomas baliyaras yaer laagav| I told my beloved, let’s be friends
taym dopnam bozwun chus kon laagav| He said, I keep hearing this, so let’s try
dapyomas boznavtam chus ba banday| I said, tell me, I am also my own person
taym dopnam boozmyit gayi sharmanday| He said, the ones who heard, were mortified
dapyomas myati baavtam panun asun| I said, show me/ let me feel (in front of you) my self as well
taym dopnam paen panas khur chu kaasun| He said, your scruples need to be resolved by the self
dapyomas kya chu andar kya chu nyabar| I said, what is it that lies inside and what lies outside
taym dopnam yi chu andar ti chu nyabar| He said, whatever is inside is outside
dapyomas nokhta os na ta aav katay| I said, wasn’t it a dot, where did (all this) come from
taym dopnam pokhta sapdakh aashq watay| He said, you’ll become enlightened on the path of love
dapyomas mokhta aashqun vaav na myate| I said, why don’t you sow the seed (pearl) of love in me
taym dopnam vavatay chi thavakh katey| He said, I would’ve sown, but where will you keep it?
dapyomas yeech kya chay pokhta giri| I said, what is this fancy enlightenment  that you have
taym dopnam karvun chus dastagiri| He said, I’m used to blessing (others)
dapyomas chuk cha kuney la shareek| I said, you’re one, alone (without a partner)
taym dopnam tamichi chay myaen tareek| He said, that’s what my style is made of
dapyomas ath tareekas hymay zaagay| I said, of this style, I’ll be wary (and keep note)
taym dopnam harna chashman saurma laagav| He said, I’ll put kohl in your deer eyes
dapyomas saurma lagith kya chu banaan| I said, what does putting in kohl achieve?
taym dopnam poz ti apuz ada chu nanaan| He said, that’s how you will see the truth and lie
dapyomas jama kath kith chu rangaan| I said, why are you dying your clothes?
taym dopnam rangavyin chusa kainsi mangaan| He said, do I charge you anything for the colours?
dapyomas rangavyin kona chuk chi mangaan| I said, why don’t you charge for the colours?
taym dopnam phalavith cham haara pyavaan| He said, I’ll get the money in piece-meal
dapyomas jaama vozil chi che paanas| I said, you’ve red clothes on your self
taym dopnam vih kamik chi la makaanas| He said, what (varied) forms does your self have?
dapyomas kanh chu aabaad kanh chu varaan| I said, someone, is ensconced, while someone is desolate
taym dopnam tami saeth cham kaem neraan| He said, that’s how I’m able to get my work done
dapyomas kona chuk parvaay melaan| I said, why don’t you care about it?
taym dopnam chus ba parvayas ta gindaan| He said, I play with the care as well.
Vanaan Soch Kral Alif-as ma chi bandi| Says Soch Kral, there is no restraint for compassion (of God)
Vuchaan ghas Khuda saebainy Khuda-vandi| Keep observing the greatness of Khuda.Soch Kral lived a simple life devoted to spirituality, monotheism, and mysticism. He was vegetarian. His favorite dish was Lettuce (Haakh) and used to take black salt tea. Among his contemporaries is Mahmud Gami, who and Soch were disciples Mumin Sahib of Bagam. Soch had many students but few known are Sidique Kral of Pandach, Shaban Sofi of Noorpora Tral, Rahman Sahib of Pingalan Pulwama, Khwaja Ambar of Imam Sahib Shopian and Yed Kral of Wanpora Pulwama. Yed Kral was also a Sufi poet and singer who sang songs from his teacher’s collection. Soch Kral may have visited the village of Devsar in the Anantnag district, where his descendants are still living.
Soch kral died at the age of 80 in 1855. It is said that before leaving for heavenly abode he purchased few malras of land for his grave form the pennies he had saved from the selling of terracotta pots. This great mystic poet is known for his message of universal brotherhood and caste free society. His urs pak is celebrated On 21 August every year. People in large numbers including Poets assemble at his grave and offer rich tributes to this great son of the soil.Soch Kral in his 80 years of life span witnessed three regimes of Pathans, Sikhs, and Dogras. But Soch Kral never expressed the injustices met out to Kashmirs during the period in his poetry. Soch Kral died on 24 November 1854 but some say it’s 1855. Soch Kral will be known to us for his message of universal brotherhood.
Soch Kral was a sufi poet from Kashmir, who wrote extensively in Kashmiri, taking the Sufi movement ahead. As we know  Sufi poets in the valley grew with the growth of Islam in the valley, which saw the intermingling of the Hindu & Islamic thought. Kashmiri Sufism in the valley was led by mysticism and self-realization. Sufi poets like soch kral didn’t write for awards or honours but they continued the mission of Islam, used his Sufi poetry as a tool and connected the people with their language and culture as well.

Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment at individual, national or
global level. Due to overpopulation, consumption of natural resources is raising day by day resulting
environmental degradation. The present study is an attempt to bring the limelight on the ecological
perspective of the contribution of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi (R.A)* in wisely guiding our values and attitude
towards the preservation of environment. He conveys in his message, that cultivation and supply of good
material is essential for the existence of life which depends on plants for which forests play a great role.
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi (R.A) led to the compilation of an inventory of plant species with the broad
objective for sustainable development. He emphasized mainly on the preservation of forest and the ways
to overcome the environmental issues. He also gives message on moral and ethical grounds against
damages or destruction of plants in general and herbal plants in particular. He has symbolically used
these plants to convey some higher message of morality and eco-consciousness to the society. The
conservation of plant species is of good significance, not only to provide useful insight into important
floristic elements of that particular era, but also to rejuvenate the sense of species sacredness for their
conservation. Which was the powerful and appealing tool of his thought for plant conservation would be
of great significance.

Forests play a significant role in the
preservation of ecological balance and
environmental stability. The permanent
water supply including groundwater and
health of soils, primarily depend upon the
extent and quality of forest cover. Forests
are a repository of biodiversity and the very
survival of mankind depends on presence of
healthy forests. Kashmir has an important
place in the ecological system concerning
India with its forests, water resources,
cultural sites and mountains. People in
Kashmir are looking forward to developing a
beautiful Valley and a creative scientific
society. They want to promote harmony with
nature and multicultural society as was the
dream of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A), the
founder of ‘Rishi movement’ popularly called
Sheikh-ul-Alam(R.A)Sheikh Nur-ud-Din
Noorani (R.A), Alamdar-i-Kashmir(R.A), has left
an indelible mark on the culture and
thoughts of the people of Kashmir towards
conservation of environment six centuries
ago before the present concept of ecological
balance was born and the U. N. plans turned
into hectic pains for maintaining the
environmental balance and upholding the
The historical analytical method is used for
this paper and the data is secondary in
nature collected from related research
papers, books and internet sources etc.

To study the role of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din
Rishi (R.A) for the conservation of
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi (R.A) as an EcoScientist
The contribution of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din
Rishi(R.A) is wisely guiding our morals and
attitude towards the environment. His
poetry do not simply share the common
traits; but he was an environmentalist,
botanist and as well as mystic. His pithy
saying, “Ann posh telih yelih wann posh” [1]
(Food will last as long as forests last) is a
clear signal of his innate foresight and
intuitive knowledge. He was a conscious
lover of Eco-System; spoke these words six
centuries ago even before the present
concept of ecological balance was born and
the U. N. Plans turned into hectic efforts for
maintaining the environmental balance and
upholding the eco-system.
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A)gave concept
regarding the values and benefits of forests
like as cooling of temperature by the green
forestry and refreshes the air. Due to the
forests the natural water cycle completes.
Forests help us to prevent soil erosion and
rapid flow of rain water down the slopes.
Forests keep the atmosphere cool and thus,
ensuring a regular supply of water. They
also supply oxygen which is essential for life.
They also help in irrigation faculties, food
production and other modern medical,
industrial and technological pursuits.
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A)expressed in
message, that essential commodities of life
are depend up on plants of which forests are
a part. If the forest areas are denuded
gushing rain waters would erode the slopes
and soft areas. Much land would be lost and
also food grain [2].
In the poetry of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A)
there is no verse which has not, ethical,
social, cultural, and prominently
topographical context. The ideas of harmony
with nature and harmony among people in a
multi-cultural, multi-religious society are
depicted in the poetry of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din
Rishi (R.A). He was determined to mend the
society from being worst to best. With the
advancement of science, what UNESCO has
said “partnership with nature” nature is not
to be exploited [3] Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi
(R.A) gave this concept before six centuries?

Sheikh Noorubased ecological practices and ethical
thoughts for the environment has assumed
special significance in the contemporary
crisis of global change. The valley of
Kashmir is rich in natural heritage and
affluent diversity connected precisely with
cultural heritage through value-based
traditional social fabric. However, erosion of
our unique traditional heritage due to
cultural invasion and depletion of
biodiversity due to biological invasions calls
for restoration of our value systems as well
as native diversity [4].
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi (R.A) while giving a
message, on moral and ethical grounds,
against damages to or destruction of plants
in general and herbal plants in particular.
For he is believed to have pointed out that
plants are living things which are born, grow
and die in due course. He says: ‘Let us avoid
harming plants in any way as far as
possible. Let us not unnecessarily trample
over green grass. For, each plant has a
purpose in life and use for others [5].
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi’s(R.A) main dish was
the Dipsacus inermis commonly known in
Kashmir valley by the name of Wupal-haak
the plant flowers in Kashmir usually
between the months of June-August. The
species has been a favorite vegetable used by
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A) and his
disciples and its luxurious growth in some
regions of the valley is attributed to the
special prayers and blessings of this Rishi
saint [6].
To bring attention towards the botanical
insights of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A)with
the broad objective to begin the process of
recovery of our traditional wisdom for
resumption of our organic relationship with
nature on sustainable sources. It is
necessary to mention that Sheikh Nur-udDin Rishi(R.A) has symbolically used plants to
convey some higher message of morality and

In view of the great veneration and high
esteem of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A) in the
hearts and minds of Kashmiri people, using
the powerful and appealing tool of his
species rediscovered from the inspiring
poetry of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A), is of
immense significance [7].
The valley of Kashmir is so deep respectful
of every blade grass not to speak of forests
that we could see Kashmir as a sanctuary.
The Rishis concept of non-violence had a lifeaffirming and universalistic value rather
than other worldly connotations. Islam as
understood by them, sought to subject the
way of life on this planet to the norms of
morality and responsibility. Man therefore
had to regulate the pattern of human life in
such a way as confirmed the truth of the
Islamic dictum; ‘Religion is indeed man’s
treatment of his fellows’.
Thus the Rishis dislike to causing injury to
animate beings, including even plants ,
insects and animals dissuading hunters from
hunting deer (hangul) the prized possession
of the valley’s forests, personal care of pets
tamed animals and birds planting trees
throughout the length and breadth of
Kashmir and above all, their insistence on
bringing more and more land under
cultivation and all points to the fact that the
true religion for the Rishis was to conduct
and other life on earth in a way intended by
its Creator.
The Rishis spirituality was thus a dimension
of early life, they realized and enjoyed in it
full by morally in God’s presence i.e., by
their exemplary responsibility to nature, to
themselves and to society. The anecdotes
about some Rishis proverbial friendships
with wild animals may not appear true, yet
they bear testimony to the stature of Rishi
as custodians of the valleys forests, culture
and protectors of their country’s natural
beauty and wealth.
Even while escaping temporarily from the
bustle of life into the solitude of forests or in
certain cases permanently the Rishis were
not unmindful of the carries of worldly life.
There was a dynamic interaction between
their asceticism and the environment, in fact
their social impact, apart from meditative
practices and strict ascetic discipline was the
measure of their spiritual manhood [8].

Abu’l fazal broadmindedness, world liness,
vegetarianism and celibacy of the Rishi’s
which had earned them the most respectable
position in the society. To quote Abu’l Fazl;
“The most respectable class in this country
(Kashmir) is that of the Rishi,s, who
notwithstanding their need of freedom from
the bonds of tradition and custom are true
worshippers of God. They do not loosen the
tongue of calumny against those not of their
faith, nor beg, nor importune. They employ
themselves in planting fruit trees and are
generally a source of benefit to the people.
They abstain from flesh meat and do not
marry. There are about two thousands of
these classes”[9].
The Rishi movement founded by Sheikh
Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A) specially emphasized
on the welfare of the Kashmiri society
through various manners specially planting
fruit, and shady trees, on the road sides and
fields, for the benefit of the common people
irrespective of any worldly greed etc [10].
While highlighting the role of glorious
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi (R.A) as a subtext, to
respect nature and live in complete harmony
with the environment, the paper calls for a
dire need for a paradigm shift in our
approach to nature and natural resources.
However, we have need to follow the
teachings of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A)
who provide a corrective to aggressive,
alienating, manipulative, utilitarian and
marginalizing approach to nature. We are
involved in devastate activities such as
deforestation, soil erosion, depletion and
extinction of biodiversity.
Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A)had broad
vision says:
Come on you rider of the steed of time;
Come on you light of the eyes of existence;
Come on and lend color and charm to the
tumult of being;
Come on and live in the pupils of the eyes

For achieve the goal of forest conservation
for sustainable development in the valley of
Kashmir. The role of native peoples is of
fundamental importance for focusing mainly
on the deteriorating ecology of forests we
have needed to launch a campaign to play a
key role in the restoration of the
representation of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din
Rishi(R.A)as an eco-scientist in the valley of
Kashmir. In addition, to this, the botanical
insights of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din
Rishi(R.A)bringing to limelight to establishing
a botanical garden of the plants mentioned
in the poetry of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi(R.A).
The local people and stakeholders need to be
involved actively in motivation of others by
respecting their traditional knowledge and
ecological ethics and uplift the economy of
the valley of Kashmir. Thus we have needed
to interpret Sheikh Nur-ud-Din Rishi’s(R.A)
message, before the ecological crises
occurred. Mysticism provides the valid
ideological framework for practicing sound
ecology. It is high time that an integrated
effort is put in place without any delay to
highlight the teachings of Sheikh Nur-udDin Rishi(R.A) concerning to environment.
1. Shah Manzoor Ahmad, Shaikh-ul Alam (2009)
Conservation of Environment. Alamdar: A
Journal of Kashmiri Society and Culture,
Mehak Printing Press Naid Kadal Srinagar,
2. Razdan PN (Mahanori) Nund Rishi (1337-1442
A.D.) Biodata and Background Information.
Saints and Sages of Kashmir Ancient and
Modern, Ascetics in Kashmir, p.121-122
3. S Bhat (2004) Kashmir Ecology and
Environment New Concepts and Strategies,
APH publishing Corporation Ansari Road
Darya Ganj New Delhi, p.4
4. Shah, Manzoor Ahmad (2012) Plants in the
Poetry of Shaikh-ul Aalam. Alamdar: A
Journal of Kashmiri Society & Culture,
Markaz-i Noor Shaikh-ul Aalam Chair
University of Kashmir, V(5):49
5. Razdan PN (Mahanori). op.cit. p. 122
6. Shah Manzoor Ahmad, op.cit. p. 53
7. Ibid, p. 50
8. Khan Mohammad Ishaq (2005) Kashmiri’s
Transition To Islam: The Role of Muslim
Rishis, (15th-18th century) Gulshan Books
Srinagar,(1994): 232-233
9. Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i Akbari, (Jarret) (Calcutta,
1868-94), II, p. 354. It may however, be
mentioned that Abu’l Fazl wrongly refers to
the Rishis as Brahmans and neither Jarret nor
J.N. Sarkar has corrected this mistake.
10. Singh NK (2000) Islamic Heritage of
Kashmir Vol.2, Gulshan Publishers Srinagar
Kashmir, p.31
11. Malik GR (2008) The Impact of Hazrat
Sheikhu’l Alam on our Life and Literature.
Alamdar: A Journal of Kashmiri Society &
Culture, Shaikh-ul Aalam Chair University
of Kashmir. II(2):