Abstract

From times immemorial Kashmir has been abode of great mystic legacy. Islam in Kashmir flourished through the same message represented by a galaxy of Mystics coming from distinct backgrounds especially from Central Asia. These Mystics changed the landscape of Kashmir and built a new religio-spritual culture, which was a unique combination of Islamic spiritual ethos (Ihsan) and regional mystical ethos of Rishis of Kashmir. Mir Muhammad Hamadani, an eminent heir to his father’s spiritual legacy, took forward the mission of his father (Saiyid Ali Hamadani known in Kashmir as founder of Islam in Kashmir) and added new heights to this Islamic Mystical Culture of Kashmir by establishing new socio- educational and spiritual institutions in Kashmir. He connected the global mystical culture of Islam or Tasawwuf with local mystic culture of Kashmir(Rishism) which resulted in permanence and dominance of unique Islamic mystical culture in Kashmir. The present paper highlights the role of Mir Muhammad Hamadani in the development of religio-spritual and educational institutions in Kashmir, with special reference to the construction of Sufi Khanqahs throughout Kashmir, and his successful influencing interaction with the wandering ascetics of Kashmir called Rishis which brought them not only close to Islamic mysticism (Tasawwuf) but also utilized their dedicated services for Islamisation of Kashmir.

Key words: Islam, Spirituality, Khanqah, Sufis, Rishis, Kashmir, Central Asia

srinagar-kashmir-india-18th-aug-2018-the-653nd-urs-of-hazrat-mir-syed-ali-hamdan-popularly-known-as-shah-e-hamdan-was-observed-at-khanqah-moula-on-the-bank-of-river-jehlum-in-old-srinaga

Introduction

From ancient times Kashmir has been unique not only in terms of its geography but also in its religio-spiritual ethos. Before spread of Islam, Kashmir was dominated by followers of Hinduism and Buddhism. As for advent of Islam in Kashmir is concerned, it is an established fact among medieval and modern historians of Kashmir that Islam was introduced long before foundation of Muslim Sultanate.1 Islam in Kashmir first got a momentum with the advent of Sufis with a missionary zeal from Central Asia, among such early Sufis including Shaikh Sharf-ud-Din Suhrwardi (famous in Kashmir as BulBul Shah, 1327 C.E)
Who was successful in influencing the Buddhist Sultan of Kashmir Rinchana (1320-1323 C.E), who accepted Islam and was renamed as Sultan Sadr-ud-Din and he was also successful in founding some early mosques and hospices around the capital city of Kashmir. Sheikh Sharf-ud-Din was followed by other Sufis from Central Asia, like Saiyid Jalal-ud-Din Bukhari, Syed Taj-ud-Din, Syed Hussain Simnani,2 all of whom played constructive role in the propagation of Islam in different parts of Kashmir. The year 1384 C.E marks a turning point in the history of Islam in Kashmir as it witnessed the arrival of a well-organized Islamic mission under the leadership of a great Sufi master, erudite scholar, versatile writer Saiyid Ali Hamadani (famous in Kashmir with the titles of Shah-i-Hamadan, Ali Sani)3 who was accompanied by about seven hundred followers, a majority of whom were themselves scholars in different branches of knowledge, art and craft4. Although there are scholarly differences among historians about the number of times Syed Ali Hamadani came to Kashmir but at the same time all the scholars and historians (except some Sanskrit Chronicles who due to their biased approach had not mentioned visits of great Sayyid in Kashmir) are unanimous about his undisputed revolutionary role in Islamization of Kashmir5. Sayyid Ali Hamadani’s unfinished mission was taken forward by his disciples under the capable leadership of his son Mir Syed Muhammad Hamadani, who was himself a distinguished scholar, prolific writer and an experienced Kubrawi Sufi saint. Early Life of Mir Muhammad Hamadani
Mir Muhammad Hamadani was born in 774 A.H; He was only twelve years old at the time of his father’s demise in 786 A.H. Although his eminent father Syed Ali Hamadani was too busy in his scholarly and missionary activities but still he had assigned the duty of his tutorship to his most learned and capable prime disciples, who took special interest in the educational and spiritual training of Mir Muhammad Hamadani during the life time of Syed Ali Hamadani and also after his demise. Syed Ali Hamadani had left two documents for his son which included Wasiyat-nama and Khilafat- nama. Mir Muhammad Hamadani was offered the Wasiyat-nama just after his father’s death but Khilafat-nama was given to him only after a rigorous spiritual training for about four years under the supervision of Khawaja Ishaq Khatlani and Mullah Noor-ud-Din Jaffar Badakshahi- both of them being the close disciples and companions of his father Mir Syed Ali Hamadani. In the document Syed Ali Hamadani had advised his son that he should first complete his education and then go for world travel (sayahat) in order to improve his character and enlighten his heart and soul. As per his father’s guidance Mir Muhammad Hamadani mastered both esoteric and exoteric sciences of knowledge in his youth before starting formally his missionary activities6. Arrival of Mir Muhammad Hamadani in Kashmir: Mir Muhammad Hamadani arrived in Kashmir at a young age of twenty two, He was accompanied by about three hundred disciples. Kashmir at that time was ruled by Sultan Sikander (1389-1413). On his arrival in Kashmir, he was warmly received by the Sultan Sikander and his administration in Kashmir. Both the Sultan and his nobles were greatly impressed by the mystical and intellectual qualities of Syed Muhammad Hamadani7. Just after his arrival in Kashmir Mir Muhammad Hamadani started his father’s mission with the same methodology of his father that “the common people imitate the behavior and culture of their rulers”8 so he gave first preference to winning over sultan, his nobles and masses of the capital city, then with the passage of time, he visited all the corners of Kashmir and interacted with every section of society. The influence of Syed Muhammad Hamadani on the Sultan Sikander and his nobles can easily be understood from the famous medieval chronicle Jonaraja’s Rajatarangini in these words: …As is moon among the stars, so was Muhammad [Mir Muhammad Hamadani] of mirs country among the Yavanas [Muslim]. Although a boy, he was their leader because of his learning. The king [Sultan Sikander] waited on him daily humble as a servant and like a student he daily took lessons from him [Mir Muhammad Hamadani]9
The Sultan’s attachment with the Syed became multifaceted with the passage of time. The Sultan not only took lessons about Shariah from Mir Muhammad Hamadani but he also wedded him (Mir Muhammad Hamadani) with the royal court by offering him the hand of Sayiddah Taj Bibi, the daughter of the Sultan’s Noble Sayyid Hassan Baihaqi. Taj Bibi died after five years of Marriage. Thereafter Sayyid knotted with the daughter of Suhabhata who was commander in chief of Sultan Sikander, who had accepted Islam at the hands of Mir Muhammad Hamadani and was renamed as Saif-ud-Din10, but she also died within short span of a year. Inspite of these relations of Mir Muhammad Hamadani with the royal court, his chief concern was only to fulfill the unaccomplished mission of his father i.e Islamization of Kashmir. For this cause, Mir Muhammad utilized the influences of both Sultan Sikander and his administration. Regarding Mir Muhammad Hamadani’s activities during Sultan Sikander’s reign, one of the modern historians of Kashmir writes: …the most important development of the reign of the Sultan [Sikander] was the conversions to Islam of a great number of people including many Brahmans and the Prime Minister and commander in chief of the Sultan. On account of the conversion of a large population including the ruling class, it became possible to Islamize the state craft, which was one of the main concerns of Mir Muhammad Hamadani11. Most of the historians have in their own right tried to explain the role played by the Sultan Sikander and his prime minister Saif-ud-Din under the influence of Mir Muhammad vis-à-vis their supposed role in the forceful conversions and destruction of Hindu temples throughout the length and breadth of Kashmir. Although some historians have succumbed to the biased view of some of the near contemporary Sanskrit chroniclers as regards the destruction of Hindu temples, yet some modern objective analyzers of Kashmir history, like P Muhib-ul-Hassan after scrutinizing the historical texts and evidences of Mirza Haider Dughlat, Abul Fazl and Mughal emperor Jahangir who have respectively talked of at least 150 standing big temples, which existed even during their times and were perfectly preserved in Kashmir. In this context Muhib-ul-Hassan has aptly remarked: …the Iconoclastic activities of Sikander have been greatly exaggerated in many instances it was not Sikander who pulled down the temples but what really happened was that when the inhabitants of a certain locality embraced Islam, the temple was converted into a mosque or it went into ruins due to sheer neglect12
As a matter of fact one should minutely study both the Sanskrit chronicles and Persian hagiographers for proper understanding of Sultan Sikander’s policy and influence of Mir Muhammad Hamadani on his administration and policies. His reign must not be visualized within the context of his highly exaggerated iconoclastic fervour but it must also be viewed in relation to his elaborate arrangements made for not only establishment of institutions of
learning but also for introducing new laws as regards the eradication of social evils like ban on alcohol, ban on gambling and burning of widows among Hindu community, a practice called Sati from Kashmir society.13 Works of Mir Muhammad Hamadani: Like great Sufi masters of Kubrawi and Suhrwardi order, Mir Muhammad Hamadani was not only equipped with the bookish knowledge in different subjects, he had practical knowledge of the rationale of human behavior, human experience and social processes as he had travelled widely and interacted with different peoples pertaining to different areas and of diverse backgrounds. Just like his father, Mir Muhammad Hamadani was not only a mystic and a preacher, but also prolific writer both in Persian and Arabic. About the impact of Mir Muhammad Hamadani’s discourses and works in Kashmir, the famous medieval chronicle Baharistan-i-Shahihasaptly remarked: Through sermonizing and exhortations, he [Mir Muhammad] succeeded in enlightening the hearts of the people with the world-embellishing faith of the choicest among men-the faith of Islam. Despite the in experience of a youth, he was gifted with remarkable piety and knowledge of sciences esoteric as well as exoteric14
Although he was very young when he took over the responsibilities of continuing his father’s mission, yet he was such an expert and mature scholar like his father that the two books he wrote in Kashmir, one on logic and the other on sufism were mistaken for the compositions of his father Sayyid Ali Hamadani by his murids (disciples) of the latter, so identical were these works in depth and scholarship with the writings of his father.15 It is reported that Mir Muhammad Hamadani had written about 45 books and Rasail on different religious sciences16 and most of them are extinct now because unfortunately they have not been preserved in Kashmir. The author of Waqiat-e-Kashmir, Muhammad Azam Didamari gives some valuable information about two works of Sayyid Muhammad Hamadani- he mentions that Mir Muhammad Hamadani wrote a book on Tasawuf for the Sultan Sikander and another one on logic. The latter one (Sharh-i-shamah), written on logic is actually on account of his serious intellectual discussions with Syed Muhammad Hisari17 , the former one, Jami- al- ulum wa Qami al Zunan has of late been identified in Tashkent by Shams-ud- Din Ahmad and more so identified and consulted by Farooq Bukhari in Nadwat-al-ulama in Lucknow.18 About the latter one, Sharah –i-shamih, it is also mentioned that it is actually the commentary of the Sayyid on Al-Shimah, the famous treatise on logic by Katibi Qazwani19. Mir Muhammad also wrote a treatise on Tasawuf for Sultan Sikander and named it Ar-Risalat-al-Sikandariya although the treatise is now extinct but it was available and consulted up to the Mughal rule in Kashmir, in the works of famous Sufis and hagiographers of later medieval times we find several references of his books as they have consulted his books and they were highly impressed by the scholarship of Mir Muhammad Hamadani20. Institutionalization of his Mission in Kashmir
Just after his arrival in Kashmir Mir Muhammad Hamadani adopted the methodology of his father and the Islamization of Kashmir became his prime focus during his stay in Kashmir. For this mission he not only created a network of Islamic Institutions like madrasas, legal schools, fatwa organizations, mosques and Khankahs21 but also utilized the human resources available to him (both his companions who were themselves well versed in different sciences and arts and the native mystics of Kashmir namely Rishis22) very perfectly which resulted in a massive change and the profound development of Islamic Culture in Kashmir. The famous institutions he founded in Kashmir not only represented the spiritual ethos during Sayyid’s lineage during his time but they also played a constructive role throughout the Kashmir history in the spiritual and social upliftment of Kashmiri Muslims down the line. Mir Muhammad Hamadani personally supervised the construction of the first and the famous Khanqah of Kashmir called Khanqah-i-Muallah. The construction of Khanqah was started in 1396 C.E (798 A.H) at the place where the Shah-i-Hamadan used to pray and preach during his stay in Kashmir. Right from its foundation the great Khanqah had represented the spiritual and cultural ethos of Kashmir’s blend with Islam, the Khanqah was not built for being only a mere place of regular worship, the concept of building the Khanqah was far more ambitious. It was designed to serve as an institution with many functions, a sanctuary for pious and devoted individuals, a resting place for travelers, a charitable organization for the needy and hungry, and a cultural center for Islamic learning. A management structure headed by an appointed administrator was put in place to oversee the implementation of the constitution of Khanqah based on Islamic principles of compassion, generosity and love for the creation of God.Pious and well trained staff with specific individual operational responsibilities was appointed for day-to-day running of the institution of Khanqah23. Besides Khanqah-i-Muallah, Mir Muhammad Hamadanibuilt network of other Khanqahs throughout Kashmir with the same missionary zeal and to educate about spiritual purification, to uplift masses socially, educationally and morally. The other Khanqahs which were built under the guidance of Mir Muhammad Hamadani include Khanqah-i-Wala in the Wachi, Khanqah-i-Kubrawiya at Mattan, Khanqah at Sopore, Khanqah Faiz–i-Panah in Tral, Khanqah-i-Ameeriya at Monghaama, Pulwama, Khanqah-i-Amir at Shey near Leh and Khanqah-i-Aala in Dooru Shahabad.24 These Khanqahs were not only centers of spirituality but also played meticulous role in social and educational reform of Kashmiri society, not only during the stay of Mir Muhammad Hamadani in Kashmir but throughout history of Muslims in Kashmir.
Another monumental institution which was built on the advice and guidance of Mir Muhammad is Jamia Masjid at Nowhatta, Srinagar. The historical Grand Mosque of Kashmir was built on his instruction- the mosque ever since its foundation worked as the symbol of Islamic culture in Kashmir and became a platform for expression of Muslim aspirations vis-à-vis the political, social and economic challenges and developments throughout the history of Kashmir. This Jamia of Kashmir built under his advice by Sultan Sikander in 1394 C.E is still in the contemporary times called Bae’d Masheed Grand Mosque of Kashmir).The Jamia is unique not only in terms of its big size but also in terms of its unique architecture, the grand mosque with its unique architecture has majestic 378 wooden Deodar pillars, supporting wooden ceiling with 346 pillars of 21 feet high and 5 feet girth and 32 pillars of 48 feet high and 6 girth, The Jamia is spread over 27 canals of land, it possesses the capacity to accommodate 33333 devotees for prayer (salah) inside and in the month of Ramadan an estimated 1 lakh people pray Jumah Salah in the Jamia25. The pulpit of Jamia has always been famous for its preachers called Mirwaizan-i-Kashmir,as they have always played a role in socio-educational awakening of Kashmiri Muslims down the line. Near the Jamia Masjid, First hospital of Kashmir (Shifa-Khana) was built on the advice of Mir Muhammad Hamadani. Besides this hospital there was also a college built next to Jamia called, College of Jamia, The college comprised of an experienced and learned faculty from different parts of the Muslim world especially Central Asia in different fields of knowledge like philosophy, mathematics, logic, metaphysics and other classical religious sciences.26 But unfortunately, with the passage of time Muslims of Kashmir could not realize the meaning of building these socio-religious institutions adjacent to the mosques and ultimately these mosques including Jamia Masjid Srinagar became a mere place for conventional scheme of worship. Besides the grand mosque of Kashmir, Mir Muhammad built a network of other mosques all over the Kashmir; these Mosques were also accompanied by socio-educational institutions. Mir Muhammad also established Kashmir’s famous and mighty Eidgah in Srinager for Eid prayers and also arranged land for graveyard called Mall-Khah in Srinagar, Kashmir. Last but not the least important contribution of Mir Muhammad Hamadani to Kashmir was his interaction with the native mystics of Kashmir called Rishis. Mir Muhammad was greatly impressed by their piety, simplicity, knowledge and spirituality especially of their Patron Sheikh Noor-ud- Din (known in Kashmir with beloved epithets of Nund Rishi, Alamdar-I-Kashmir and Shaikh-ul-Alam). Mir Muhammad Hamadani interacted with Sheikh Noor-ud-Din and his prime disciples including some female disciples at Zalsu (presently in district Budgam of Kashmir six miles away from Tomb of Sheikh Noor-ud-Din in Charar-i-sharif) in 814 A.H. He was so much impressed by their self-purification, sincerity and love towards Islam and human creation that, he gave Sheikh Noor-ud-Din,Khat-i-Irshad27, for his piety and God gifted qualities of understanding the pulse of Kashmiri society.In the content of this Khat-i-Irshad, Mir Muhammad addressed Sheikh Noor-ud-Din in these words: …my brother Nuruddin Rishi Kashmiri who is pious, gnostic, man gifted with kashf, mujahidah and mushahida and is also a zahid and ‘abid. May Allah guide him like salihin and arifin and shower on him His grace like those who are perfect in piety and nearest to Allah. He not only insisted on his entry into the circle of Allah’s lovers and perfectly pious souls but implored for it with every fibre of his being. Hence I granted him Permission to make seekers (after the Truth) resentful and take allegiance from them and may guide and train those seeking guidance in the path28.
A copy of the same Khat-i-Irshad has been preserved in the Khanqah-i-Muallah.29 He recognized Rishi order of Sheikh Noor-ud-Din as part and parcel of Kubrawi Sufi order in Kashmir and entrusted them the mission of Islamization. It was just after this interaction that Mir Muhammad decided to leave Kashmir after working in Kashmir for more than one decade30. Having bestowed Kashmiri society an Islamic mould in every aspect of life, Mir Muhammad Hamadani left Kashmir and entrusted his mission to the native mystic of Kashmir Shaikh Noor-ud-Din31who worked hard, after him to the best of his expectations and organized one more movement of Islamic awakening in Kashmir called Rishi Movement which continued the mission started by ShaikhSharf-ud-DinBulBul Shah, Shah-i-Hamadan Mir Syed Ali Hamadani and Mir Muhammad Hamadani for centuries, Regarding influence of Rishis in Kashmir, due their tolerant and sincere attitude, Medieval historians like Abul Fazl has aptly remarked in his Ain-i-Akbari, …The most respectable class in this country [Kashmir] is that of Rishis who notwithstanding their need of freedom from the bonds of tradition and custom, are true worshipers of God. They do not loosen the tongue of calumny against those not of their faith, nor beg nor importune32. Although the presence of Rishis in Kashmir goes back to ancient times, but it was just after the historical interaction between Mir Muhammad Hamadani and Sheikh Noor-ud-Din, that we see Rishis not only coming closer towards Islam but also playing the role of torch bearers for the cause of humanity and Islam. After his departure from Kashmir, Mir Muhammad left for Makkah, then went back to his native country and passed away in 852 A.H and is buried in his ancestral graveyard next to his father Syed Ali Hamadani in Kolab (Tajikistan). Conclusion
Kashmiri populace had a predilection towards mystic teachings prior to the advent of Islam in Kashmir. The propagation of Islam in Kashmir took the same route, although foundation of Muslim Sultanate in Kashmir in 1340 C.E also softened the way for Islam in Kashmir but it is an established fact that the spread of Islam in Kashmir was a gradual process, and this process of Islamization was taken forward by consecutive sufi missionaries. Among the early leading Sufi missionaries from outside Kashmir especially Central Asia, include Sheikh Sharaf-ud-Din Suhrawardi, Syed Jalal-ud-Din Bukhari,Syed Hussian Simnani and the most influencial mystic scholar Syed Ali Hamadani, who due to his fundamental role in Islamisation of Kashmir is known as founder of Islam in Kashmir (Bani-i-Musalmani fil Kashmir). The legacy of Syed Ali Hamadani in Kashmir was taken forward by his worthy son Mir Muhammad Hamadani. The role of Mir Muhammad Hamadani is unique, as he founded great number of socio-religious and educational institutions in Kashmir which are still present in large numbers throughout Kashmir and are contributing to the development of socio-religious and educational awakening among Muslims of Kashmir. The most unique contribution of Mir Muhammad Hamadani among Central Asian missionaries is his role in reformation of local mystic order of Kashmir called Rishism. He recognized the local Rishis and their patron saint Sheikh Noor-ud-Din as part and parcel of mainstream Islamic Mysticism (Tasawuf). He instilled in them (Rishis) missionary zeal which fulfilled the language barrier gaps which were faced by Central Asian mystics in Kashmir. After his departure from Kashmir, it was these Rishis of Kashmir who took forward the mission of Islamisation to the grassroot level of Kashmir; they approached all the sections of society from royal courts to the local village peasants of Kashmir. Notes and References
1 The first Muslim ruler of Kashmir was Sultan Sadr-ud-Din (before conversion to Islam Rinchana) who ruled for less than 4 years (1329-1323 C.E) and the Muslim Sultan was founded in 1340 by Sultan Shah Mir called Shah Mir dynasty which ruled for more than one century, but historians have mentioned presence of Muslims in Kashmir in 11th Century but after foundation of Muslim Sultanate there was a great flow of Central Asian Sufi missionaries who were warmly welcomed and respected by the Sultanates of Kashmir, for further study about advent of Islam in Kashmir see, Farooq Bukhari, Kashmir Mein Islam: Manzar Passi-i- Manzar,Ashraf Book Depot, Srinager, 2013, PP 1-30, Prof. Ashraf Wani, islam in Kashmir, Oriental Publishing House, Srinager, 2004, Sayyid Ali, Tarikh-e-Kashmir, English translation with historical analysisHistory of Kashmirby A.Q. Rafique, Gulshan Books, Srinager 2011 2 Syed Jalal-ud-Din visited Kashmir in 1347 C.E, Syed Taj-ud-Din Visited Kashmir in 1341 C.E and Syed Hussian Simnani came to Kashmir in 1371 C.E, For further study about advent of Islam in Kashmir before Muslim Sultanate, see Farooq Bukhari, ibid, Ashraf Wani, ibid, G.M.D. Sufi, Kashir: Being a history of Kashmir, Ali Mohd and sons, Srinager, 2008, Wali Muhammad, Tarikh-i-Awliya Jammu Kashmir, J&K Urdu Forum, Jammu,2013
3 For further study about his life and contribution see, Khilasat-ul-Manaqib by Noor-ud-Din Jaffar Badakshi, urdu translation with notes by Prof. Shams-ud-Din, Sheikh Usman and Sons Srinager, 2003, Syeda Ashraf Zaffar, Syed Mir Ali Hamadani, Sheikh Usman and Sons Srinager, 2007, Shams-Ud-Din Ahmad, Shah-i-Hamadan: Hayat Aur Karnamay, Haji Sheikh Ghulam Muhammad And Sons ,1995, Shah-i-Hamedan Mir Saiyed Ali Hamadani: His Life and Works, a
collection of Papers of a Seminar held in Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi in 2001, Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, New Delhi,2003 Hayat Aamir Husaini, Religious Thought Of Mir Sayyid ‘Ali Hamadani, Jay Kay Books, Srinager, 2012 4 For further study about his Role see, Prof. Ishaq khan, Sufis of Kashmir, Gulshan Books, Srinager 2010, Ashraf Wani, ibid, Dr Altaf Hussain Yatoo, Islamization of Kashmir, Gulshan Books, Srinager, 2012, Pir Hassan Quhami, Asrar ul Abrar Urdu Translation, Tazkira-e –Awliya-e-Kashmir by Peerzada Abdul khaliq Tahiri, Shiekh Usman And Sons, Srinager,2012, Khawaja Azam Didamari, Waqiat -e-Kashmir, Urdu Translation, Dr Suriya Gull, Mir Sayyid ‘Ali Hamadani and Kubrawiyya Sufi Order in Kashmir, Wattan Publications, Srinager, 2003 5 Kashmir Historians of medieval times like that of Khawaja Azam Didamari, Syed Ali and modern Historians like Prof. Ishaq Khan are of the view that Sayid Ali Hamadani came to Kashmir only ones while Historians like Hassan Quhami, Muhideen Miskeen and Muhibul Hassan are of the view that he came thrice to Kashmir, Although it has been debatable issue among Historians, how many times he actually came to Kashmir but all of the Historical Scholarship are unanimous that he stayed in Kashmir for less than 3 years but still in this short span of time he played fundamental role in spread of Islam in Kashmir and for that reason he has been given the title of Bani-I-Musalmani fil Kashmir (founder of Islam in Kashmir), as for as the famous Sanskrit Chroniclers of Medieval times like Kalhana, Jonaraja, Srivara are concerned, unfortunately due to their religious bias, they have not mentioned anything about the visits and works of Syed Ali Hamadani in Kashmir. For further study see Khawaja Muhammad Azam Didamari,Waqiat-e-Kashmir,Urdu translation by Prof. Shamas-ud-Din Ahmad, Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Reseach Center, Srinager, 2001, Abdul Wahab Nurri,Futuhat-e-Kubravi, Pir Hassan,Tarikh-e-Hassan,Ishaq khan ibid, Ashraf Wani ibid,A.Q Rafiqui ibid, G.M.D. Sufi, Islamic Culture in Kashmir, Capital Publishing House, New Delhi,1996 6 Dr. Syed Farooq Bukhari, Hayat-e-Mir Muhammad Hamadani, Ashraf Book Depot Srinager, 1997, pp 4-6
7 Anonmous, Baharistan-i-Shahi, English translation by K.N. Pandit, http://ikashmir.net/baharistan/index.html, pp 52 8 Sayyid Ali Hamadani, Dhakhirat-al-Muluk urdu Translation by Prof. Shams-ud-Din Ahmad, Vol. 1, p 196, Ashraf Wani, Ibid, pp 60 9 Jonaraja, Rajtarangini via Altaf Yatoo, Islamization of Kashmir, pp 89
10 For further study see, Ashraf wani, Islam in Kashmir. Ishaq Khan, Kashmirs Transition To Islam: Role of Muslim Rishis, Gulshan Books Srinager,2005 11 Ashraf Wani, ibid 204,205 12 Muhibul Hassan, Kashmir under Sultans, Gulshan Publishers Srinager 2002, pp. 66 13 Although It is an critical and somehow controversial issue as both Sanskrit Chroniclers and Persian Hagiographers have adopted extremes about the Iconoclastic activities of Sultan Sikander and His Commander in Chief Saif-ud-Din but some modern Historians have Critically Examinedall the Sources and historical evidences of presence of Hindu Temples during various periods of Kashmir History after Sultan Sikander’s rule, For further study see Asrhaf Wani, ibid 114-123, Ishaq Khan, Kashmirs Transition to Islam, ibid 80-82, A.Q. Rafique, ibid 110, Muhibul Hassan, ibid 66 14 Anonmous, Baharistan-i-Shahi, English Translation by K.N. Pandit, http://ikashmir.net/baharistan/index.html, pp 52 15 Ashraf wani.Islam in Kashmir, pp 167 via Sayyid Ali, Tarikh-I-Kashmir 16 Farooq Bukhari. Hayat-e-Mir Muhammad Hamadani, Ashraf Book Depot, Srinager, 1997, Bashar Bashir,Mir Muhammad Hamadani in Awliya e Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir Cultural Academy, 1997 17 Abdul Qayoom Rafiqi, Sufism in Kashmir, Gulshan Books, Srinager,2011 18 Farooq Bukhari, ibid 17 19 Altaf Yatoo,Islamization of Kashmir, ibid 89 20 Dr Farooq Bukhari, Ulema-i-Kashmir Ka Shandar Mazi, Ashraf Book Depot, Srinager, pp 72-73, Famous Sufi Scholars of Medieval Kashmir like, Baba Dawood Mishkati, Haider Malik Chadoora, Baba Dawood Khaki has quoted his Books, via Farooq Bukhari, Hayat-i-Mir Muhamad Hamadani, pp 19-20 21 Khanqah is a Persian word meaning a holy place of worship for Muslims with a prayer hall for prayer (Salaat) and with residential quarters for guests, pilgrims and tourists. It is a building designed specifically for Sufi gatherings for spiritual retreat and character reformation, and often served as hospices for travelers and Islamic students. The word Rishi is of Sanskrit origin, meaning a singer of hymns, an inspired poet or sage, The Rishi tradition in Kashmir has a long history, dating as far back to pre-Vedic times but it was after great efforts of Sheikh Noor-ud-Din who was influenced by Central Asian Mystics Sayid Ali Hamadani and his son Mir Muhammad Hamadani, Sheikh Noor-ud-DinIslamized Rishi Tradition of Kashmir, For further study about History of Rishi tradition and its Islamization see Rysh Wa’ar: The Valley of Saints by Manzoor Fazili, Gulshan Books Srinager,2015,pp 7-46, Ishaq khan, ibid pp 37-60, Mystic Traditions of Kashmir by Iqbal Ahmad, Gulshan Books Srinager, 2011, Shiraza,, Sheikh-ul-Alam number, 1978, J&K Cultural academy Srinager, vol.17, no.3 23 Farooq Bukhari, ibid 12-13, He has quoted the Waqaf-Nama Of the Khanqah in which special guidance are given regarding maintenance and administration of Khanqah, it speaks about how the special care of not only devotes and disciples was taken into special consideration but also special arrangements forpoor’s, needy and travelers were made without any kind of discrimination. 24 Farooq Bukhari, ibid pp 19, via Asrar ul Abrar of Baba Dawood Mishkati 25 Author has personally visited the Jamia and collected the requisite information as regards its structural layout and has corrobated the information thus gathered with the historical sources (Kutub-i-Tarikh).A marble stone placed in one of walls of Jamia upon which valuable information about history of Jamia has been inscribed. Famous modern historian of Kashmir,G.M.D. Sufi, has also mentioned history and architectural uniqueness of Jamia in his book Kashir: being history of Kashmir, vol. 2nd , pp 512-514 26 Farooq Bukhari ibid. pp 9,10 27 Khat-i-irshad is a kind of Authority letter given by a Sufi Master (Murshid) to his most prime and abledisciple(Mureed). By virtue of this authority letter he(the Murreed) acquires the requisite authority toguide and initiate other disciples in that very Sufi order of his Master (Murshid).It is also known as Khilafat-nama(document of spiritual Vice-regency) in the Sufi terminology. For further study about Sufism and Sufi terminology, see Kashf al-Mahjub, of Ali Hujwari, English translation, R.A. Nicholson, Adam Publishers, New Delhi, 2011, The Encyclopedia of Islamic Spirituality edited by S.H. Nasr, Suhail Academy Lahore, 2005 28 Originally in Arabic the Translation has been quoted from, Prof. Ishaq Khan’s, Kashmir’s Transition to Islam: role of Muslim rishis, pp 257
29 A copy of Khat-i-irshad is preserved in Khanqah-e-Muala Srinager and Prof. Ishaq Khan has quoted and translated it into English in his book Kashmir’s transition to Islam: Role of Muslim
Rishispp 252-257 and has also highlighted its historical importance in the Muslim history of Kashmir 30 Scholars and historians of Kashmir have differences about the number of years Mir Muhammad Hamadani stayed in Kashmir but they are unanimous that he stayed in Kashmir for at least 12 years and during his stay in Kashmir he visited all the corners of Kashmir and interacted with all the sections of society, his interaction with the local mystics has been one of the outstanding events in history of Muslims in Kashmir 31 For further study about socio-religious contribution of Rishi Movement in Kashmir, see Noor Nama of Baba Nasib translated into Urdu by Prof Margoob Banhali, Markaz-i-Noor, University of Kashmir, Prof. Ishaq khan’s, Kashmirs Transition to Islam, Alamdar-i-Kashmir: Standard Bearer patron-Saint of Kashmir by M. Amin Pandit, Gulshan Books Srinager 2011, Alamdar edited by Ghulam Nabi Gowhar, Gulshan Publishers Srinager, 1997, Burj-i-Noor: Hayat aur Halat-i-Sheikh-ul-alam, Cultural Academy Srinager, 1991 32 Abul Fazal, Ain-i-Akhbari, via Shafi Ahmad Qadari, Kashmiri Sufism, Gulshan Books Srinager, 2002, pp 75
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Research by Muhammad Shafi Bhat-Doctoral Fellow, Shah-i-Hamadan Institute of Islamic Studies, University of Kashmir, Srinagar Email ID: bhatshafi11@gmail.com

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Nations are not born but are built by the men of the soil. Knowledge is the fuel that illuminates the Alps and dales of
the soil in which a nation breathes and respires. Prosperity of a nation is determined by the mental scale of people
comprising a nation. Fertile be the mental faculty of a nation, fragrant be its territorial boundaries and dimensions.
Once we talk of our nation that is Kashmir, we see a rich tradition and a magnanimous culture. This magnanimity is
because of the inhabitants who lived on this sphere of the globe. They decorated the human intelligentsia from time
immemorial and thus designed a nation like Kashmir-A place well known on this part of the planet. It’s because of
this intelligentsia that people like Reshi’s and Munnis have born on this patch of land and have remained pre
dominant in building a place well known as “Pir Wari”. Among such personalities The sagacious son of the soil
appeared in the form of Sheikh Noor-u-Din (RA) in 14th century AD. He is the sagacious saint of Kashmir who builds
his nation with the secretions of wit and wisdom. It’s in his era that the people of Kashmir refreshed their religious
thoughts and beliefs and achieved familiarity with the way of Islam-A doctrine based on monotheism. The
sagacious saint cultivated in them the cultivars of peace, fraternity, felicity and sensitivity. The missionary behaviour
got developed and humane aptitude gained its momentum. The sensational sentiments of this temporal world were
replaced by deep thinking about the creation and creator.
The mental faculty attained the broader concepts and visions of passing a self less life pure and hygienic were
developed. The concept of here after world came into being. Social and civic dimensions expanded and a pulsative
human heart with feelings started its beats. Carnal aptitude of life got replaced by human aid and welfare. Sheikh
Noor-u-Din (RA) traversed the tedious mountains, tiresome meadows and pastures, cumbersome coniferous
habitations to teach and preach His nation the purpose of life on this globe. He with the sweat of His brow irrigated
such saplings in his native land that evaporated perfumes and a fragrant nation came into being. Kashmir and
Kashmiryat a well known peculiarity found its place. The natural beauties and bounties of land in association with
moral and morale behaviour of its inhabitants compelled the foreigners to grant a valorous award of “Paradise on
earth” to Kashmir. Owing to his stylish system, the whole nation remembers Him as “Alamdar”- The flag bearer of
Kashmir. He gave His nation a theory based on truth, morality, self less-self, equity, equality and generosity and
whenever we will analyse His theory on timely scales and touch stone s it always proves like tested gold.
We the Kashmiri’s shall acquaint ourselves with His theory and theology to polish our mental faculty so that we may
be able to walk with raised heads in this modern world. We shall make our children familiar with the teachings and
preaching’s of this beloved leader and shall fell the scientific fragrance from his verses to make the world in know of
his scientific aptitude. It’s the need of the hour that we shall be familiar with our ancestors to décor ourselves in a
way that the whole world be attracted like moths to visit this land owing to its beauty and morality of its inhabitants.
Let’s tread the ways and allies of this sagacious son of the soil to achieve the desired goal of life. Let me represent
the verses of this sagacious son of the soil who’s verses has a scientific fragrance viz;
“Zazur tsam hungaray Vayus ne Khand nabad te shakari”……… Means!
Hair grey art apparent on my temples, let not use any candy bar to grow stout.
The verse depicts the diabetic message which develops around the age of 40.
“Mo maz pothis mazus te budnus,
Diluk gul gatshyo kayus pul”….. Means!
Let not be inclined to gluttonous dishes and bowls. Let not develop thy cardiac vessels as stony mass.
Thus a message related to cardiology is eminent from this verse.
“Zazer thuf tsinim shairay,
Tunzar mouruem kya mun pai
Nazar douraim van kith phairay
Yavun soor te badai bayi”
Means!
Held I’m by temporal discolorations and deformations.
Leanings vociferous have declined to yielding wax;
Myopic am I with refractive error not to be corrected. Ah! The vicissitudes of life wilt name thee an old Frater.
Thus the verse seems to be related with ophthalmology branch of medical science. Let me narrate this verse in
which the message of a dietician comes to fore
“Vopul hakus tur goum dazith
Sivli kani khayoo bazith kath”…… Means!
O’ charred art my leafy greens on roasting
Ah! why not I consumed it raw.
Similarly the message related to chemistry, physics, biology, statistics etc are apparent from the pious verses
SHEIKH UL ALAM which needs to be analysed through scientific spectacles on modern scales to communicate our
future generation the grandeur of our beloved ancestors.
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Genealogy of Alamdar-e- Kashmir…
The Paradisal pleasance of Kashmir does not merely mean the beauty and symmetry which this sphere of the globe
possesses but in fact means the grandeur of its inhabitants who have made its surroundings so fragrant that the
perfumes evaporated to vast areas of human habitations and atmospheres. From time immemorial the milky way of
the firmament of Kashmir did possess glittering stars emitting fluorescence to remove the stygian darkness amid
the terrains and lofty areas of the terrene. The brightest star appeared on the firmament in the shape of Sheikh Noor
ud Din who is the lone son of the soil enjoying the status of a flag bearer (Alamdar), besides the great sheikh of the
world.
Sheikh is said to have been born on Friday the 25th Rabiul Awal, 774 Hijri corresponding to 24th of September 1373
A.D. The genealogy displayed by Naseeb ud Din Ghazi (disciple of Sheikh) is as under:
Raja Ogra Sanz……… Drupta Sanz……… Zanga sanz…………. Hunar Sanz…….. Wogra Sanz……….. Salar Sanz………. Nund
Sanz.
Mohi ud din Miskeen the well known author of “Tarikhi Kabir” states that the ancestors of this great man belonged
to Kishtwar area of Jammu & Kashmir and were the rulers enjoying the valorous state of Sanz -¬ The brave. Owing
to political instability in the region they migrated to this part of the region. The then rulers of Kashmir did not only
grant them the refuge but also granted them the fief dom of Rupvan, a village in North-East region of Chrar-i-Shareif,
03kms away from the township. Miskeen Jots down that Zanga Sanz the great grandfather of Sheikh was an
advisor to Khumni- a great grocer and ruler of village Tilsara located in the Eastern side of Chrar-i-Sharief 02kms
away from the town. Khumni was murdered in the upheaval of Dalchu and Hunnar Sanz the son of Zanga Sanz
remained hidden in dark dense forests of Chrar-i-Sharief which was then known as “Tsrar Van”. After confinement
among conifers did he appear in village “Gud Sathu” situated at Chadoora Budgam road and got settled there. Salar
sanz the beloved father of Sheikh was influenced by Yasmin Rishi and accepted Islam & was named as Salar ud Din.
Though historians are mum and mute about Salar sanz but the verse revealed by Sheikh implies his prosperity and
affluence as he says,
“Kaimoh kis Salar-dins….. Yes dowlatch manz boud aayie”
Means Salar-ud-din the inhabitant of kaimoh deserves felicitations as he yielded among riches to adopt the doctrine
of Islam .This proves that sheikh was nourished and cherished in a well-to-do family with all luxuries and dainties,
rejecting the concocted stories designed and devised for him. Sheikh’s mother a pious and noble lady did hail from
“khee” a village of in kulgam District. Historians have highlighted only the spiritual conduct of Sheikh and have
ignored his other dimensions of life which include his scholarly behaviour, linguistic approach, researcher’s aptitude,
philosophical temperament and missionary zeal. The tide of time has masticated his scientific innovations which
are eminent from his Kalam.
The details can have from my paper on scientific aptitude of this great man which I delivered in university of
Kashmir on 03 day international seminar on Shah-i- Hamdan’s contribution to learning & society. The paper is
published in local daily of Kashmir Frontier of 15 March 2012.
Falsified stories have been attributed to this man by our historians and writers either due to political hedges or
timely tides which is a separate debatable discussion. Sheikh proved sharp witted from the early childhood and did
posses a capacious brain to feel and catch temperamental beats and throbs of the time. He was a great philosopher
and a true time server of his time. He happened to be a great scholar and had a full command on knowledge. His
linguistic aptitude shows his majesty and stateliness. His multidimensional personality is the outcome of his multi
phased poetry which proves to be the sole alchemy for refinement of a multi shaped creature like man. His poetry
seems to be a perfect medicament, a complete therapy and a well known remedy for ailing and failing human souls
& spirits at different times and occasions.
Once the verses revealed makes a man to feathers for aerial trips but thereby abides him to drupe down to dust to
abide and adore one omniscient and omnipotent lord. His appeal for killing one’s appetite from worldly charms &
beauties do teach and preach the man the modes and styles of this world and world after. He analyses the different
aspects of life with scientific and innovative modes and moments. His message does not pertain to a sect of society but the humanity as a whole. His plain and chaste phrases undoubtedly sensitize the human intelligentsia
and makes a man to shun his lustful behaviour and to get accelerated for human aid and help. His verses act as
stimulants for secretions of wit and wisdom for thought full innovations of this living world and he proved to be the
best annotator of Quran.
Sheikh was a great missionary and he started missionary schools for both the genders of the society across the
length and breadth of his native land. Trained missionaries were plotted to disseminate the theology of Islam to the
grass root level. For its percolation he used the soft, sweet and candid sap of his mother tongue which created a
vigorous pressure to accelerate the human wit and will. Hardly a place is found in the entire terrain where the sole of
Shiekh would not have enjoyed the bill and coo of the soil/dust.
A like a jeweller, Sheikh with the art & craft of wit & winsome designed a long chain of his followers who in close
association with the society taught the people the essence of great religion. Such grooming did create a bonton
atmosphere around the Alps and dales of Kashmir. Among these followers; comrades like Latif ud Din, Zain ud din,
Bam ud din & Nassar ud din, Dhut Ded, Shanga bi & Sala Bi are of great importance. Sheikh is said to have remained
stationed for a long time at Draigam in Budgam, Chimmar in Devsor, Hoonchipora in Beerwah and Rup Van in Chrar-
i-Sharief Budgam. Besides he had brief visits to almost all the parts of Kashmir. Sheikh during his life selected Chrar-
i-Sharief as a permanent abode where he was laid for eternal peace in 842 A.H corresponding to 1438AD.

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25591565_2001688770087024_5724988426300741392_nPrakash Ram Bhatt is one of the reputed Kashmiri Sufi poets of the 9th century .Prakash Ram well
known poet of Kashmir worthy of appreciation for his impression, spectacular and simple writings.
Prakash Ram was a devotee of Shri Rama, Prakash Ram was born in 1819 Kawarigam, a small village
Qauzi gund and he left for his eternal journey at his native place 1877.Prakash Ram was born in the house
of Mezrah Pandith,Mezrah Pandit the father Of Prakash Ram was an illiterate person but sent his son to
the Madrasa (school) for acquire knowledge .Merzah Pandit being uneducated person was very keen
about his child`s education. From the childhood Prakash Ram was honesty and pious. He was a reserved
man and used to speak less and most of the time remained alone. Prakash Ram was one of Greatest
devotees of Lord Shri Ram and due to this fondness. he penned The Ramayana in two Kashmiri language
and name it Rama Avatar charyit and Lav Khush charyit. This Ramayana became first epic Poetry ever
Written in Kashmiri and the most important contribution to the kashmiri literature . The Ramayana got
renowed throughout Kashmir particularly Kashmiri pandits. Prakash Ram has also written Akanandun and
krishanavtaar Lila and as such he got reorganization in every corner of the valley because of
Ramayana.Prakash Ram has used the name Shri Ram`s family in many of his poems like kind Dashratha
(father) Mother koushaliya,Laxmana,Bharath etc. Koushaliya hindeh gobroo,karoo goore goore,Paryo ram
ramie ,Karoo goore goore,meh depyamie rama rajia,Khoush aawie ni woureh maajeh,Aadnek seer
baajia,,Karoo goore goorem,Atchen hund gaash kout gaoom,Seryeh Prakash kout gaoom kehnti tchem
neh aash kout gaoom,,Karoo goore goore. Prakash Ram lived a simple life which is also observed in his
poetry,his verses simple in style with trouble-free words.this quality made him unknown among general
masses of valley. Once Praksh Ram as usual was praying and was singled in devine meditation.All of
sudden Goddess Bhagvati got appeared ahead of him.Prakash Ram stunned to see Goddess Bhagvati
footing infront of him.Goddess Baghvati said,I love u being for so simple and isolated from this world in
the contemplation of God and you should meet me tommarrow at ~Reid Naag~ (a famous spring of the
village where Goddess baghvati used to dwell).Prakash Ram was joyous and could explain this felicity
and anxiously waiting for the day.Next Day Prakash Ram arrived at `Reid Naag` to meet Goddess
Baghvati.Goddess Baghvati again go visible before him with a bowl of honey in her hand. She offered the
honey to Prakash Ram to eat it.Prakash Ram received willingly and ate the honey.After the meeting with
Goddess,Prakash Ram commenced his daily conducts as usual but an emergent transformation was
sensed by him.Till the meet he was a good poet but after Prakash Ram was incredible,he started to write
down Poems with great profundity,meaning and rhythm,Goddess Bhagvati bestowed him enormous
power of thinking and writing. Gaoom Travith Dil tchum Meh Dazaan, Tchum Neh Wazaan Sitaare Nayee,
Siryeh Prakashi Kartam Yon Payaee, Laie Woath Tiem Tachi Tali Krayaee, Pashe Panne Tchet Tchet Tchet
Neeraan, Tchum Neh Wazaan Sitaar Nayee… Prakash Ram being a Hindu Written verses which are being reited by Muslim Sufi in Mehfil-i-Samma functions.Parkash Ram was amystic poet,who enjoyed his life in
divine company. From early age he was extremely attracted to spiritual deeds which he agained through
consecrated efforts in the path of love.Parkash Ram was reasonably influenced by Islamtoo;he has
poetized beautiful lines in the grand and idealistic nobility of Prophet Muhammad..saw…in these lines he
mentions the begining creation of the universe.. Aashiq Tche zindeh Roozan Loluk Quran per perh,
Beshak Kar-i-Irfan Thavaan Bayan ker kerh, Awalie Ishq Tchu Tashooq Panuie Gatchum Meh Mashooq, Ad
kurnie Padeh Nooraan,Muhammad .Saw. Naw Ker Kerh, Prakash Bhat Tchuie Miskeen,Peerus Kaaran
Afreen; Chaw Tam Meh Moie Piyapie Moie Khaan Tchi Tche Ber Berh.(Loves are Breathing coz they
believe love as Quran undoubtedly utter about oneness of God In the begining God fell in love anad craved
to see his beloved Then he created The Noor, Named it Muhammad .SAW. PRakash Bhatt is
poor,extolments his murshid Make me drink of divinity,thy cantina is fully sated) . In the above mentioned
lines clear that Prakash Ram had deep Knowledge,awareness and understanding about The Holy quran
and Holy Ahadith As Prophet Muhammad.Saw. say: .Ana min Noor-il-Lahhin Wal Khalku Kulhum Min
Noori.(The first creation of All Mighty is the creation of my NOOR from his own Noor and latter whatever
is Created is created from my Noor(Noor-e-Mohammad..Saw..)
The essential uniqueness in his composition was the simplicity,Cleaness and purity of thoughts and
language. While going his poetry it seems that Prakash Ram was well influenced by the sufi saints and
poets of Kashmir valley. who have bestowed greatest poetry for future generations. Most of the poets
have used Persian and Sanskrit words in their poetry but Prakash Ram did not utilize the Sanskrit and
persian idiom in order to preserve it for general people.
**** DE NA DARSHUN TI YE NA SOUN .KARSAI POOSHEH WARSHONAIE,
PRAKASH PRETH JAYEH KATEH CHARUN,SUBHUK SIRYEH RAMBEH VONOYEE,
ZALWUN THONAM NAAR LALVUN, KARSAI POOSHEH WARSHOONAI *****
Show me thy visage and visit my home,
I shall shower blossoms upon you,
Prakash is everywhrer here, where shall I search,
Moment of sunrise is heart touching,
He left me and my heart is burning,
I shall showeer blossoms upon you..
Prakash Ram had strong faith in supernatural powers of God that Control human destiny; he has
expressed in his deep feelings in many verses. He believes that God himself is a defender to defenseless
people; the people who are deprived and left alone by their relatives will take pleasure in the eternal
ecstasy; people who believed God the only protector will definitely enter heaven.
Prakash Ram Says to those who lost their parents and have none in this material world should not feel
alone because. God is the parent of all those who have none to look after them; people who are homeless
should not worry about the painful experience because any shelter which gives happiness and comfort is
an absolute home. His poetry expresses the reality of author who was well experienced about this life and
hereafter…
** HI VESS MUSHTAQ KAS GAOOM,
THAS GAOOM PETMAI PRIYARE,
POHAL TRAVITH RAMBUS GAOOM,
KEH TER KE ROED YEMPARE,
DIE RUS KAHMA TCHMAMBUS GAOOM,
THAS GAOOM PETMAI PRIYARE,
PRAKASHAS YEL HESS PIYOOM,
MAS GAW SUH SOOZ CHI TARE,
MASTAAN MASS CHEITH MAS GAOOM,
THAS GAOOM PETMAI PIYARE ***
..Oh ! My friend whom my beloved loves,
Who he left me at the dawn,
Shepherd left flock of sheep,
Some got across some did not,
None at watch may some skipped,
Who he lefty me at the dawn,
When Prakash got conscious,
He was in rapture while listening to sweet music,
My beloved drank and was fairly squiffed,
Who left me at dawn….

Prakash Ram used to spend most of time in continuous and profound contemplation of God.he was a
true lover of Shri Ram but still has written many poems about Islamic Tassawuf.Islamic Scholars. Saints
and poets used to read and listen to his wonderful
Verses. He has poetized Islamic Tassawuf as brilliantly and gracefully as great Muslim Sufi poets have
did. Going through Prakash Ram`s Writing it seems he had a Muslim Mursheed but history does not verify
anything about it..
** MASHOOK WUCH MAKH PANAI,
AZ TAN KYA WURYANAIE,
TASHOOQ GAOOM BIRYANAIE,
AZ TAN KYA WURYANAIE,
PRAKASH WUL JAMEH WAJOOD,
WAJOOD ANDRIE TCHU MAJOOD,
MAJOOD TCHU AZ RAH-E-NABOOD
AZ TAN KYA WURYANAIE.**
..Oh my beloved I saw thou,
Face to face without veil,
Thy love chopped me into pieces,
Face to face without veil,
Prakash clothed his soul with mortal body,
But is breathing within it,
The existence inside body came from deity,
Face to face without veil..
Praksh Ram has written many Leela`s and Bajans in the admiration of various Gods and
Goddess.Prakash ram Died young in his 50`s . he was very famous and had many disciples from both
Muslim and Hindu religion.
After his death quarrel started between Muslim and Hindu disciples whether Prakash Ram`s body be
buried or burned. Hindu disciples said he was a Hindu so should be burned .and Muslim disciples said he
should be buried. Then they decided to bathe the body first after that the later decision would take place.
Disciples were washing the dead body all of a sudden everyone was astonished when they saw the body
of Mursheed Prakash Ram flying in air and went away of eye sight. At the end body was not found.
People of Village Bonigam,Near by village of Quazigund says That Prakash Ram`s body took flight over
the chinar tree and touched a branch of it and went away. It is said that the branch which came in contact
with the dead body of Prakash Ram remain evergreen even in the winters when every leaf turns red but
the leaves of that branch remain flourishing in all season.

@imran yousuf

2017_2$largeimg210_Feb_2017_230942203

Amir-e- Kabir Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (RA) the saint and his saintly works are integral to ‘K’ narrative of more or less 750 years –mid 14th century onwards. Study of Kashmir from any perspective—historical, socio-cultural, economic would be incomplete without reference to the much revered Amir-e-Kabir. His work and deft approach impacted all aspects of human activity in Kashmir. Irrespective of his ethnicity, his footprints could be seen from Hamadan, across Central Asia—where he lies buried in Khatlan to Kashmir. In Kashmir, his name is associated with a change, which was nothing short of a renaissance.

Amir Kabir’s name reverberated on social networking site a week or two back, as academicians, politicians’ journalists and netizens engaged in a passionate discussion on anthem of Kashmir University. It was pointed out that Amir-e-Kabir did not figure in the anthem, on the basis of his ethnicity being different. It needs to be asked—could a wandering saint of Amir Kabir’s stature stay encaged in narrow confines of ethnicity.  Strange, it might seem in Hamadan, he is hardly a household name as he is in Kashmir, though there are references to him in the literary hub. I should know it, as for over a decade, I worked in hospitals in cities close to Hamadan. Hamadan formed a place; I frequently visited, as some of my friends were posted there in various hospitals.

Amir-e-Kabeer’s period of stay in Kashmir weighed with the impact he had should add lustre to his immense input. The stay is related to be in three phases, comparatively shorter than the stay of his son—Mir Mohammad. On the sheer impact, what better we could have than the light Allama Iqbal throws on it. The way he illuminates it is dazzling:

Jumla ra aa’n shah’e darya asteen

Daad ilm va sanat va tahzib va deen

The couplet makes out that Shah-e-Hamadan with his inclusive approach and oceanic vision provided (to Kashmiris) knowledge, industry, culture and religion…could there be a greater proof that Shah-e-Hamadan identified with the needs of Kashmiris in multiple spheres and contributed liberally. He mingled with Kashmir to the extent of becoming an everlasting part of the vale, as Allama Iqbal makes out in the couplet preceding the one noted above:

Syed-e-aa’n Kishwar menu nazir

Mir va darwesh va salatin ra misheer

Syed of the country a la paradise

Guide of nobles, the saints, the sultans

Allama Iqbal glues him to the paradise of Kashmir.  It worked to Mirs’ (nobles) darweshs’ (saints) and sultans consulting Shah-e-Hamadan for guidance. It is related that Sultan Shuhab-ud-Din Shahmiri (1354-1373 A.D) sought his audience.

Allama Iqbal in his masterly Kashmir related Persian poem captioned ‘Ziyarat e Amir-e-Kabir Mir Syed Ali Hamdani va Mulla Tahir Ghani Kashmiri’ imagines a Kashmir conference by the side of Hauz-e-Kauser, a well in the paradise. The poem forms a part of ‘Javid Nama’ a poetic treatise on flight of imagination, as Iqbal with his mentor Maulana Rumi sets on heavenly trail. Iqbal is seen feverish in anticipation of meeting his friends; a galaxy gathers—Rumi, Iqbal, Mir Syed Ali Hamdani and Ghani Kashmiri to dwell in ‘K’ related issues.  Rumi calms Allama by advising him to get over his anxieties.

Guft Rumi unche mee ayad nigar

Dil ma’dah ba unche be’guzasht pisar

Rumi says whatever you may get to see

Whatever passed, lose not your heart, son

Rumi further asks Iqbal to listen to Tahir Ghani’s tunes:

Shair’e rangeen nawa Tahir Ghani

Fukur’ou batin ghani zahir ghani

Tahir Ghani is introduced as a colourful poet, who lived a life of penury, yet his penury has a ring of richness, outwardly and inwardly too he is rich. The richness in the poetic tone shows Tahir Ghani’s state of contentment. Ghani is thus at peace with himself.  Rumi wants Iqbal to imbibe the state of peace, so that his state of restlessness over what is happening to Kashmir is set to rest. The prevailing scenario may not upset him, seems to be the advisory note of Iqbal’s mentor—Peer-e-Rumi.   Ghani’s tunes are registered, so is the presence of high bred Syed (read Amir-e-Kabir). He is introduced as a Syed of Syeds (Syed-ul-Sadat) and a leader of Iran (Salar-e-Ajam), who shapes destiny of nations (Mamar’e’Taqdeer’e’Umam: read Kashmir):

Syed-ul-Sadat’ Salar-e-Ajam

Daast ou mammar’e’taqdeer’e’umam

Allama’s statement is elaborate on Syed of Syed’s shaping the destiny of Kashmir and becoming an integral part of ‘K’ narrative. And, the poet traces his impeccable pedigree:

Ta Ghazali dars’e Allah’ho girift

Zikr va fikr az doodh’maan’e ou girift

Ghazali, relates Iqbal, until he grasped the essence of faith in one and only God had to rely on ancestors of Amir-e-Kabir to impart the all-important lesson. Imam Ghazali (1058-1112 A.D) who lived three centuries before Shah-e-Hamadan was the student of his ancestors. Ghazali’s stress on faith taking precedence over logic and reason is an important chapter in Islamic literary stream. It might be added though Ghazali in his dissent on Greek thought of primacy of logic and reason stressed on faith having its own logic.

The impeccable pedigree in Islamic realm, the immense impact on ‘K’ narrative makes it preposterous to even imagine that Ami-e-Kabir does not belong to Kashmir a la Tahir Ghani Kashmiri, irrespective of their Persian ethnicity. ‘K’ narrative owns him as much as it owns Kashmir being the citadel of Buddhism of yore hosting international conventions on Buddhist thought.

Yaar Zinda, Sohbat Baqi [Reunion is subordinate to survival]

Dr. Javaid Iqbal

(Author is doctor in medicine, a social activist, and a senior columnist)

 

 

 

Hazrat Sayyidah Fatimah az-Zahra (ALAIH SALAM)

Posted: June 20, 2017 by kashmirsufis in Ahlul bayah

The princess of women, Sayyidatina Fatimah Zahra (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) was, according to the statements of all the chief ‘Ulema, the most beloved of the children of the Holy Prophet of latter times (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), and was by her superior nobility of mind and excellent qualities distinguished above all her brothers and sisters. It is recorded in the Kasheful-Ghummah that Ibn Khisab has, in his chronicle of the births and deaths of the members of the family of the prince of existences, stated, with the proper authorities taken from Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin ‘Ali al-Baqir, etc.—that the birth of Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) took place five years after the announcement of prophecy and the descent of revelation, and that she departed from this world at the age of eighteen years and seventy-five days; but according to another tradition, ended was her noble life at the age of eighteen years, one month, and fifteen days. She lived with her father in Makkah for eight years, and she went to Madinah with the Rasul of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) and dwelt with him there ten years, and she was then eighteen years old. She lived with the Commander of the Faithful, Hazrat Ali bin Abi Taleb (Karram Allah Wajhah) seventy five days after the death of her blessed father (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), but according to another tradition, forty days. In theTanfyh of Ibn Jawzy it is stated that the birth of Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) took place five years before the Mission, and in the Rawdzat al-Ahbab two traditions are recorded on this subject, the first whereof agrees with that of the Tanfyh, but the second is to the effect that this luminary sphere of prophecy arose from the horizon of nativity in the forty-first year after the catastrophe of the elephant. In the just-mentioned work it is also narrated that the decease of Sayyidatina Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) took place during the night of Tuesday, the third day of the month of Ramadhan, which happened six, and according to others three, months after the death of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam). On account of the two traditions of Sayyidah Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) that noble lady must have reached the age of twenty-eight or of twenty-two years; but the true knowledge is with Allah.

In the Kashaful-Ghummah it is recorded, according to the precedent of those who walk in the paths of the A’immah, that the prince of the righteous (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) had said: “During the night of my ascension, I ate one fresh date of the fruits of the trees of eternity, which was softer than butter and sweeter than honey, and the essence of that date generated seed within my loins. When I [again] alighted on earth I approached Khadijah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) and she became pregnant with Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha).” The seal of Ambiya (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) also said: “‘O Khadijah, the faithful spirit of Allah has apprised me that this child will be a daughter. Call her Fatimah, because it is a pure and blessed name.’”

When the time of the delivery of Sayyida Khadijah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) was near at hand, she sent for several of her relatives to aid her on that occasion; but as she incurred their displeasure by marrying the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), they would not comply with her request, so that she was much distressed. Nevertheless, four women, resembling those of the tribe of Bani Hashem, suddenly made their appearance, and Khadijah was afraid of them. One of them, however said: “Fear not, for Allah the Most High has sent us to you. We are your visitors. I am Sarah; this is Maryam, the daughter of Imran; the third is Kalthum, the sister of Musa; and the fourth is Asiah, the wife of Pharaoh. They will be your companions in Paradise” Then one of these women sat down on the right and another on the left of Sayyidah Khadijah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha), the third in her front, and thefourth in her rear until Sayyidatina Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) was born. When this took place a light shone from that infant of laudable end, which encircled the houses of Makkah from the east and west, so that there was no spot in any house which was not illuminated by that light:

Distich: The light of prosperity shone, Making my heart to gladness prone.

In the above-named work, it is also recorded that the Lord and Bestower of all gifts sent ten Huris from the uppermost paradise into the apartment of the pure Khadijah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha), each of whom brought a basin and a pitcher full of water from the Kawthar. Then the woman sitting in front of Sayyidah Khadijah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) took hold of Fatimah and washed her with that water from paradise, and afterwards she brought forth white and extremely fragrant swaddling clothes in which she wrapped the infant; then she drew a similar cloth over the child’s head by the way of a coif, and said: “Take her, Khadijah. Give way to no apprehensions, for blessing is in her and in her progeny.” Then the other women congratulated Sayyidah Khadijah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) and departed, whilst she embraced Fatimah with great joy and happiness. When the lord of prophecy (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) entered, he took the darling child into his arms, called her Fatimah, and surnamed her Umm Muhammad, but her sobriquets are numerous, such as, the blessed, the pure, the innocent, the pleasing, the pleased, the orthodox, the Vestal, and Zahra (flower).

It is related by the El-Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (Radhi Allahu ‘Anhu) that his holy and prophetic lordship (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) asked Sayyidah Fatimah one day whether she knew why she was called by that name, and Sayyidina Ali Amir ul-Mu’mineen (Karram Allah Wajhah) having thereon also asked for the reason, his lordship replied: “Because she delivered her soul from fire.” It is related that Hayder Karar (one of the names of Sayyidina Ali, Radhi Allahu ‘Anhu) said: “Verily the Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam)  was asked what Betul meant, and he replied: ‘It is a woman who never sees redness; namely, she never menstruates, because menstruation is hateful in the daughters of the Prophets.’” It is related that El-Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (Radhi Allahu Anhu) having been asked why the princess of women was surnamed Zahra, he replied: “Because Allah had magnified her, and when she arose she illuminated the heavens and the earth with her light, and the eyes of the angels were dazzled, so that they prostrated themselves, worshipping Allah Ta’ala, and saying: ‘O our God and Lord, what is this light?’ Whereon Allah vouchsafed to the the following revelation: ‘This is a light of My Light: I cause it to dwell in My Heaven: I created it from My Greatness; I produced it from my forehead, and from a Nabi more excellent than all the other Ambiya. From that light I shall produce A’immah who will promulgate My Commands, and propagate My Truth, and I shall cause them to be Khalifahs on My earth;’ and here the revelation ceased”

As has been narrated above, the lord of dominion [i.e., Hazrat Ali, Radhi Allahu Anhu] married in the second year of Hijra [A.D. 623] the princess of women, who was on that occasion, according to the tradition of the Imams of the family [of Muhammad, Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam], nine, but according to another statement fourteen, years old. Some even assert that she was twenty years of age.

It is related in the Sohah-Akhbar that when Sayyida Aisha (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) was asked what person that Prophet of Jinn and Men loved most, she replied: “Fatimah.” They said: “Of men?” She (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) replied: “Her husband.” It is likewise related of Siddiqah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) that she said: “I never saw any person resembling Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) more than Fatimah in her countenance, in elegance of speech, in dignity, and in all her motions. Whenever Sayyidatina Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) paid a visit to the best of men (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) he rose, kissed her, and made her sit down in his own place. Whenever his lordship the refuge of prophecy (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) came to her house, Sayyidatina Fatimah acted in the same manner. It is also an authentic fact that the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said: “Fatimah is a part of me; whoever injures her injures me, and whoever angers her angers me.” According to some traditions, he also said: “Allah gets angry when Fatimah gets angry.”

It is related of Thauban, the freed man of the prophet of the last times, that he said: “When the best of men started on a journey, the last person of whom he took leave was Fatimah az-Zahra, and when he returned the first person whom he met was Betul.”

It is related in many respectable historical works that when Sayyidatina Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) was struck by the calamity of losing her father, the best of men, she wept and lamented so much from morning till evening that she distressed the inhabitants of Madinah, who sent her the following message: “O daughter of the Nabi of Allah, if you weep during the day, take rest in the night, that way we may also have peace; and if you weep in the night, be silent during the day, and we shall likewise obtain repose.”

It is related of the Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu) that he said: “There are five weepers in the world: Firstly Adam (Alayhis-Salaam), who cried so much after his expulsion from Paradise that two rivers [of tears] were flowing on his face. Secondly, Ya’qub (Alayhis-Salaam), who wept so much on account of his separation from Yusuf (Alayhis-Salaam) that he became blind. Thirdly, Yusuf (Alayhis-Salaam) who deplored in prison his separation from Ya’qub to such a degree that all the captives were distressed. Fourthly, Fatimah (alayhas-Sallam) who wept so much after the death of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) that the inhabitants of Madinah sent her the following message: “O darling of the lord of existences, you have indeed distressed us by your fervent lamentations.” Then Betul Zahra (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) betook herself at least to the cemetery of the martyrs, and wept there. Fifthly, the fourth Emam, who was constantly shedding tears on account of the calamity of Karbala, so that his attendants could never place any food before him without its being moistened by the water of his eyes.” It is related of Muhammad al-Baqir the Imam of exalted memory that he said: “After the decease of his holy and prophetic lordship, no one ever saw Fatimah laugh till her very dying day.” It is related that Zahra (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) called in her last malady for Solmy the freed woman of the lord Mustafa, and said: “Bring me some water for ablution.” Solmy narrates: “After she had washed herself so beautifully as I had never seen anyone doing it so well, she asked for clean garments and donned them. Then she ordered me to spread out her couch, whereon she reclined, turned h her right side to the Qiblah, and, placing her right hand beneath her face, she said: “Solmy, I shall at this moment depart from the abode of perishableness to the mansions of eternity, and I have washed myself that no one may undress me.” When she had uttered these words, her spirit took flight to the upper regions.” Shortly afterwards, Sayyidina Ali Commander of the Faithful (Karram Allah Wajhah) entered, and, witnessing the scene, poured forth tears from the clouds of his eyes. This event is, according to the Rauzatul-Ahbab, described in the same manner by Muhammad bin Sa’d and the amanuensis in his Tabaqat; but if it be true, it must be considered as one of the peculiarities of Sayyidatina Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha), because it is against the commandments of the doctors of the Law [to omit the ablution of a corpse]. NOTE: The reader should know that Hazrat Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) was not like ordinary Muslim ladies.

In the Kashaful-Ghummah, it is related that Betul Zahra (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) when she was near her death, called Asma the daughter of Omys, and said:  “Asma, one day Jibreel (Alayhis-Salaam) paid a visit to my father when he was sick, and brought him some camphor of paradise for Hanutt. My father divided it into  three parts. Keeping one for himself and giving the other two to me, he said: ‘Preserve the one share for yourself, and the other for Ali Murtaza.’ Asma, that camphor,  which weighs forty mithqals, I have laid by in a certain place. The twenty mithqals which belong to me you are to put near my head; but give the other twenty to the  lord Ali Murtaza.” When Asma had done this, Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) said: “Go out and leave me alone. Call out my name after a short time; if I answer, it  is all well and good; but if I remain silent, be aware that I have departed to my noble father.” Asma obeyed, and shortly afterwards, called out: “O daughter of  Muhammad the Elect!” but received no answer. She therefore again entered the apartment, and removing the veil from the countenance of the princess of women, she  perceived that her soul had departed from the abode of grief to the palace of joy. Then she prostrated herself, approached, and kissed her, saying: “O Betul, when you  arrive in the paradise of your father, convey him my greeting and petition.” On that occasion the lord and Imam Hasan entered with the Imam Husayn (Radhi Allahu  Ta’ala Anhuma) and asked: “Asma, is our mother asleep?” Asma replied: “Your mother is not asleep, but has departed to the proximity of the Mercy of the Lord of lords.” Hereon both commenced to week and to lament, and proceeded to the Masjid of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) for the purpose of informing Sayyidina Ali Murtaza (Karram Allah Wajhah) of the event. When they had reached the proximity of that blessed locality their voices of lamentation became very loud, so that some of the Holy  Companions (Radhi Allahu Anhum) who were sitting there with Sayyidina Ali (Karram Allah Wajhah) exclaimed: “What makes you cry, O [grand] sons of the Nabi of  Allah? Allah forfend that you should weep!” Then they related what had taken place, and the Lion of Attack (Karram Allah Wajhah) was so overpowered by grief that  he fell prostrate on his face and uttered the following words: “O daughter of the Nabi of Allah, after his lordship’s death, you were my consolation; but who will calm  the pain of endless separation and of infinite exile when you are no more?” Then he pronounced the following distichs:

Each meeting of two friends has an end

Every grief is slight, except separation;

If I have lost Fatimah after Ahmad,

It is a sign that no friend remains.

Then the king and refuge of wilayat [i.e., Ali] hastened to the apartment of Taherah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha), and ordered Asma to wash and shroud the princess of the women of both worlds, and interred her body to the Baqyi cemetery. The author of Kashaful-Ghummah says: “Ibn Babutah(Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anhu) reports the matter as follows, and I consider him to be correct: She was buried in her own house, but when the [graves of the] Bani Umayya increased in the mosque her body was [likewise] interred in the same, and in what I have reported I have only stated what is know and generally believed by the people, by historians and biographers, that, as stated above, she had been interred in al-Baqi cemetery.”

It is related in the Rauza-tul-Ahbab that according to one tradition Hazrat Ali Murtaza (Karram Allah Wajhah), and according to another Sayyidina Abbas (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anhu), prayed over the corpse of Sayyidatina Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha). The next day, the two Sheikhs (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala Anhuma) and all the companions of the best of men, reproached Hayder [The Lion, i.e., Ali] the Commander of the Faithful, saying: “Why have you not informed us, that, by being present at the honor of the prayers over Fatimah, we might ourselves have been honored?” But the king of the dominion answered: “I have acted thus by her own injunction.”

In the Rauzat-ush-Shahda [Mausoleum of Martyrs] it is recorded that according to the tradition of the Ahlul-Bayt [members of the family] the death of Sayyidatina Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha), the daughter of the prince of existences, took place on Tuesday, the third day of the blessed month of Ramadhan, in the eleventh year of the Hijra [A.D. 632], and that she was buried in the Rauzat-Maqadasat [sacred mausoleum].

The author of the present work states that some who wrote down the traditions concerning the members of the family assert that Zahra (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) died seventy-five days after the prince of mortals; others, however, say forty days. The Kashaful-Ghumma has a tradition from the Dhariat-Taharat, the author of which is Dullaby, that al-Zahra (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) lived three months after the decease of the Mustafa (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) and the number of days given by the Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir is ninety-five. None of the traditions, however, imply that this great calamity had taken place on the third day of the blessed month Ramadhan, because in reality the death of the daughter of the prince of existences took place at the end of Safar, or in the beginning of Rabi anterior in the same year; the [true] knowledge, however, is with Allah, who is to be adored.

In the Tanfyh of Ibn Jawzy, it is recorded that Sayyidatina Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anha) had four children, children, namely, the Imams Hasan and Husayn, Zaynab, and Umm Kulthum. Zaynab was married to Abdullah bin Ja’far Tayyar (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu) and gave birth to two sons, Ubaydullah and Awun. Faruq the greater [i.e., the Khalif Umar] (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anhu) espoused Umm Kulthum during his own reign, and begat with her a son, Zayd by name. After the demise of Umar the Commander of the Faithful (Radhi Allahu Ta’ala ‘Anhu) Awun bin Ja’far married her, and after he had also died Muhammad bin Ja’far married her, and had a daughter by her. When Muhammad had likewise departed to the eternal world, Abdullah bin Ja’far married Umm Kulthum and she died in his house.

 

 

 

Urs of Sheikh Dawood (RA), an annual event of significance falls in the month of Rajab in Hijri lunar calendar. It is highly placed in the chain of events that mark the reverence in which Kashmiris hold their Sufi saints. Known as Resh-we’r (abode of Rishis) Kashmir from north to south is dotted with mausoleums of imminent Sufi saints. Their Urs—annual commemoration dots the calendar and is remembered by high and low, literate and illiterate, even house wives otherwise busy in daily chores keep track.

 

At the very top is Urs-e-Nabi (pbuh) in Rabi-ul-Awal followed by Urs Dastageer Saab, Urs Makhdoom Saab, Urs Naqshbandi Saab, and the Urs of the patron of Kashmir Sufi saints—Sheikh Noor-un-Din Noorani (RA). There are others in various corridors—Baba Shukur-ud-Din Saab atop a hillock overlooking Wular Lake, Baba Reshi Saab uphill on the road to Gulmarg, Hussain Mantaki Saab on national highway, Zain Shah Saab on the way to picturesque Phalgam. The name—Resh we’r is thus well earned.

In Resh-we’r, Rishis had spiritual guides (Murshid) following the tradition; Sheikh Dawood (RA) was guided by Hazrat Ad’Rishi (RA) as recorded in Tarikh-e-Kabir.  However initially he sought a teacher—Kh. Yusuf Katju, who ultimately led him to his spiritual guide. Murshid of Ad’Rishi (RA) was Hazrat Baba Hardh’e Reshi (Resh-e-mool of Islamabad) whose Murshid was Hazrat Hamza Makhdoom (RA). Makhdoom Saab carries the distinction of being guided by Hazrat Jamal-ud-Din Bukhari (RA). In the Sufi realm, the belief holds that Hazrat Jamal-ud-Din Bukhari (RA) was appointed to train Sultan-al-Arifeen by the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Sheikh Dawood (RA) thus followed a significant Sufi trail.

In an outer locality of capital city, Srinagar, is the mausoleum of Sheikh Dawood (RA). The locality is named after the saint—Batmaloo, a combine of inner settlements (Mohallas’ in vernacular). Before the advent of the saint the locality was called Wud’yar’wun, a part of Ramalna Pargana (agricultural division). The revered saint-Sheikh Dawood (RA) earned his alias Bat’e’mool/Bat’h’mool on two varied counts. One, he was believed to have been a great protector of Battas’ (Kashmiri Pundits) hence was called Bat’e’mool (father or patron of Battas’). Two, he was from a family of agriculturists and would distribute Bat’h (rice) to every passer-by, and as nature would have it, never ever was shortage encountered. Hence, he earned the alias Bat’h’mool ( provider of rice).

It is recorded in Tarikh-e-Kabir that Sheikh Dawood (RA) belonged to a family of agriculturists. He was son of Sheikh Shingl’e Bhat. Originally a pandit, Shingl’e Bhat embraced Islam. He was a rich agriculturist; Sheikh Dawood (RA) inherited agricultural holdings.  Besides pursuit of spiritual knowledge remained his forte. It is related that even though he was Ummi (illiterate) as far as worldly knowledge goes, he was otherwise well-versed in spiritual knowledge. Called Ilm-e-Ludni (inner knowledge) it reveals secrets of the self, a realm of knowledge, rishi’s of Kashmir and Sufi saints were well versed with. And acquiring the knowledge and providing guidance to masses led to spiritual richness of Kashmir. Sheikh Dawood (RA) holds a significant contribution in spiritual enlightening of Kashmir.

Vis-e-vis the alias–Bat’h’mool, Tarikh-e-Hasan, a Persian chronicle of Kashmir’s history records (volume: 3, page: 358) that Bat’h’mool would prepare soft form of rice (Wugr’e in Kashmiri) in what in vernacular is called (Daigh—a big utensil). He would keep it on the bridge in the locality he lived in, and ask every hungry passer-by to take it. It would be served with (Saag: Green leafy vegetable) and (Lassi: butter-milk). For his endearing endeavour, he was called Bat’h’mool. And, this is the name, he is remembered with. Tarikh-e-Kabir records that he served meals to hungry during famine.

Tarikh-e-Hasan also records his patronage of Kashmiri pandits. As Bat’e’mool (patron of pandits) he is revered for his  cosmopolitan approach and inter-faith understanding. He shared the much needed trait with other Sufi saints of Kashmir. High degree of tolerance and inter-faith understanding has been a common vein of Sufi saints. Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Noorani (RA) and Lal Ded institutionalized it; their poetic notes censor religious bigotry. Bat’e’mool took it to extremes by standing-up as their protector.

Historical narratives concur that he left for his heavenly abode on 21st of Rajab as per Hijri calendar, the year being 1070 A.H. It coincides with Baisakh, which heralds the spring, harbinger of agricultural season. While the Urs is dated on 24th of lunar month, prayer starts three days before on 21st of Rajab, and continue three days after the date of Urs. During these days devotees refrain from touching meat products in deference to the saint, who lived on frugal vegetarian diet. It is related that Urs became a routine after Governor Abdullah Khan issued instructions.

Sheikh Dawood (RA) lies buried in the dwelling; he lived in, with his family and disciples.  In the dwelling, he had constructed a mosque, a khanqah (Sufi dwelling—a place of prayer) and a pond in his lifetime. His name and fame spread and ultimately the locality he lived in, and where his mausoleum is located bore his name.  The name survives over last four centuries.

Tarik-e-Kabir carries the poetic note of his death:

Saal Tarikh Wafatesh Hatfi

Daad’h Ilhami Mara Az Bahr’Unn

Sheikh Momin Ba’Sur Ikhlas Guft,

Bat’h’mool Kard Mawe Dur Jinan

The narrator conveyed on his death

What an inner-voice revealed about him

Said the sacred Sheikh said with reverence

Bat’h’mool’s chosen abode is paradise!

Yaar Zinda, Sohbat Baqi [Reunion is subordinate to survival]

(Author is doctor in medicine, a social activist, and a senior columnist)y