He was instrumental in reforming hundreds and thousands of Muslims.
Bashir Ahmad Dar


Among the most venerated Sufis of Kashmir, Shiekh Hamza Makhdoom occupies a conspicuous position. In fact Sheikh Hamza is regarded next to Sheikh Nuruddin Rishi only, who is considered as the leader of the spiritual domain in the state. If Sheikh Nuruddin is revered as Shiekh ul Alam, Shiekh Hamza is remembered as Mehboob ul Alam. Whereas the former is known as Alamdar i Kashmir, the latter is called as Sultan ul Arifeen. The locals as well as the foreigners have regarded these two Sufis as the leading spiritual leaders of the state. It may be of interest to note here that it was most probably the reason that prompted the Afghan governor, Atta Muhammad Khan to mint the coins in the name of these two sons of soil.

Baba Daud Khaki mentions an anecdote in Dasturul Salikeen narrated by his Murshid that Allah had been gracious enough to bestow two attributes to him in the very infant stage – one was that whenever a saint or a virtuous person would visit their house, he would cling to him leaving aside all childish affairs. Second one was that he would never lie. Once, while going to Madrassa, he, on the way, observing children engaged in play joined them. This resulted him in bunking off school for the day. On his return he was quizzed by his father about his engagements and though fully knowing the consequences of replying the truth, the child informed the father of his actual engagement (play). The father beat the son (Sheikh Hamza) to pulp so much so that he got bed ridden.  It was during this illness that he made up his mind to go for schooling at Srinagar. After schooling and spiritual initiation he was destined to become the leading Sufi of the state. The Sufi came to be known as Mehboobul Alam, Sutanul Arifeen  Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom(R.A)

Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom was originally a follower of Kubrawi tradition. He, in his early childhood learnt at the feet of his father. Later on, on his migration to Srinagar, he was tutored by Shaikh Fathaullh, the son of Shaikh Isamil Kubrawi who had established Daru Shifa near Kohi Maraan. Akhund Mulla Lutufullah was also one of his teachers. Then he moved to the Khanqah of Shams Chak. He learnt the Quran, fiqh, Hadith, allied science, Suifstic traditions and was also conversant with some works of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamdani. He got initiation to the Suharwardi Silsilah at the hands of Sayyid Jallaud Din (1308-84) of Uchh, popularly known as Makhdum Jahaniyan-i-Jahan Gasht.

Right from his childhood up to attaining the status of a Sufi, he was all through virtuous, and dedicated his life to the cause of Islam. He was instrumental in reforming hundreds and thousands of Muslims. He offered the nectar of Maurfat to all those who thronged his spiritual abode. It was at his hands that a number of his disciples were raised to the prominence in the Sufistic circles.  These include the illustrious Sufis Sheikh Daud Khaki, Mir Hyder Tulmuli, Khawaj Hasan Qari, Khawaja Ishaq Qari, Mulla Ahmad Chagli, Moulana Jami, Feroz Ganai, Mohammad Ali Raina, Baba Hardi Rishi, Mir Mohammad Afzal, Bayezid Shumnagi, Shaikh Roopa Rishi.

He toured the nook and corner of the valley and being a son of the soil succeeded in establishing intimate contact with the people. He insisted on the Sunnah being adhered to and the myths and legends to be discarded. The construction of mosques at a number of places particularly where the people dreaded ghosts and had ascribed myths may be regarded as a part of his campaign in furthering the cause of Islam. Hundreds of poor, destitute and hungry were fed in the Langar (hospice) established by the saint at Kohi Maran. It was Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom(R.A) who served as a meeting ground for the Rishis and Suharwardi saints.  His influence extended to the Rishi movement as he enrolled some Rishis like Baba Hardi Rishi and Roopa Rishi as his disciple. By paying a visit to the tomb of Shaikh Nur ud Din Rishi (R.A) he extended the influence of the Rishis even to the Suhawardi circles. It proved to be the reason that his disciples have preserved, with veneration, in their hagiographies the activities of the Rishis. According to a contemporary account, Tazkirtul Murshideen by Miram Bazaz, a lesser known disciple of Shaikh Hamza, on his visit to Hardi Rishi (R.A), Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom asked the former to taste food with him. Baba Hardi Rishi (R.A) refused to taste the meat. He is said to have cited the exhortation of Khizr(A.S), Christ(A.S), Moses (A.S), Idris(A.S) and Illyas(A.S) who are said to have been spiritually present on the occasion. Bab Hardi Rishi (R.A) informed the host about the spiritual experience as the reason why he was hesitant to taste meat. Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom(R.A) replied that it was the command of the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W) that he should share non-vegetarian food with him . In order to dispel the Rishi’s doubt, Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom invoked the help of the Prophet Mohammad(SAW) whose spiritual presence finally caused the Rishi to share the non-vegetarian meal with Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom(R.A), though it was only once in his life to do so. Likewise Khawja Hassan Qari, the illustrious disciple of Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom, narrates an anecdote of Shaikh Hamza thrashing a dervish with a stick who was indulging in Charus, to believe Qari leading to his ‘annihilation’. May be the account is riddled with supernatural events, however the patent objective reality is that it signifies that Shiakh Hamza Makhdoom was very particular about following the Shariah.

The Sheikh breathed his last in 984 Hijra (1585 A.D.). Sultan Ali Shah Chak, the ruler of Kashmir is said to have attended his funeral prayer while it was led by Sheikh Tahir Rafiqi and it included contemporary scholars and Sufis like Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi. As per the instructions of the saint he was laid to rest at Kohi Maran, the centre of spiritual emancipation established by him. Nearly fifteen years after his departure from the worldly abode, Akbar, the Mughal king, built a shrine there which was reconstructed during the Afghan rule by Atta Mohammad Khan around 1821 A.D. As a mark of respect and reverence, Atta Mohammad Khan stuck the coins bearing the names of Sheikh Nur Ud Din Rishi and Sheikh Hamza Makhdoom. This is probably the unique instance in the history of world when the coins have been stuck bearing the names of saints. This is also indicative of the reverence and the popularity the saints commanded among the people and also of the rulers.

– See more at: http://www.greaterkashmir.com/mobi/news/opinion/sultan-ul-arifeen-symbolising-spiritual-heights/203778.html#sthash.z1iFZosw.dpuf



Khatlan and Kashmir: Sharing Pilgrim Tourism, Trade and Culture
File Photo

UNESCO has decided to celebrate the year 2015 as the 700th birth anniversary of Mir Syed Ali Hamadani (R.A). In this connection Seminars, conferences and symposia are being held in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Tajikistan has taken the lead in this regard and recently a scientific symposium on the theme “Mir Syed Ali Hamdani: A Scientist and Thinker” was held at Dushanbe (Tajikistan) from September 5-6, 2015 to commemorate the unparallel contributions of this great scientist, thinker, philosopher, religious leader and a Sufi saint.

The symposium was attended by the scholars from India, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Russia, France, America and other Central Asian Republics. I also had the privilege to attend this mega event. The second day of the symposium was held at Kulab (Khatlan). For me, it was an emotional moment as I got an opportunity to visit the mausoleum of Amir Kabir situated right in Kulab again after 2007 when I first visited the shrine to pay my homage to this great saint philosopher.
Khatlan has its own history. It has its glorious past, rich cultural heritage. It is famous for its handicrafts. In the past, it was denoted as a group of   districts of Transoxiana (Mawara-un-Nahr– Beyond the River). There are historical relations between Khatlan and Kashmir. At present, Khatlan is a province of Tajikistan. Its capital is Auratipa, famous for its handicrafts; especially dying of cloths, same as what is reflected in the pictures of yore of the dying centers around Zainakadal, Srinagar.
Kulab, which is mentioned in the history as Khatlan, is at present a district of Khatlan province and is 240 Kms away from Dushanbeh, west of Tajikistan. Kulab is a city center of the district. The meaning   of the   word Kulab is (kul = stream; Aab = water), therefore a river and a source of water. Both words i.e kul and Aab is familiar with Kashmiri diction and are frequently used by Kashmiris. It is out of context to deliberate upon the geographical landscape of Kulab and Khatlan. However, it is worth mentioning here that in the 8th century Kulab emerged as a destination of a socio-religious, cultural, mystical, literary and scientific center of excellence. Mir Syed Ali Hamadani (R.A) constructed a Khanqah here, where thousands of Sufi saints, Ulema and Mashiakhs would quench their mystical and scientific thirst. The Alishaian was a respectable, noble and ruling family of Kulab. Khawja Ishauqe Khatlani was a prominent member of this ruling clan. Today, this clan of Alishian is known as Dehhai Langar in the district of Momin abad. When Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (R.A) migrated from Hamadan to Khatlan, he took shelter in the family of Alishian. Later on Khawaja Ishauqe Khatlani shunned the worldly desires and did pay his allegiance to Hazrat Amir Kabir to pave the ways of spirituality under his holy guidance. He not only became the renowned disciple of Hazrat Shahi Hamdan (R.A) but married her daughter to him. In the absence of Ali Thani, Mir Syed Ali Hamadani (R.A), Khawaja managed the affairs of the Khanqah and disciples of Hazrat Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (R.A).
The Kashmiri people have strong desires, feelings, passion, faith, and a special relationship and connection with Kulab, because their benefactor along with his family members is buried there. The mausoleum of Hazrat Shahi Hamdan (R.A) is situated on the right side of a big highway, which passes through the main city. The tomb is located in the center of a garden, which is spread over 3-4 acres of land. The garden has been designed as a recreation cum amusement park. It is full of flowers and different fruit trees. The main gate and the tomb have been built with pink glazed bricks. The three small dooms are covered with gold foils. On the right hand side of the main gate is a museum, where some old Mss., paintings, photos are on display. All the structures are designed by the Iranians. The tomb is of a three vertical shape building having three small rooms just at a distance of 50 feet from the main entrance. On the roof of the main gate the caption “Aaram Ghah-e-Mir Syed Ali Hamdani” (The resting place of Mir Syed Ali Hamdani) is written in bold letters.
The Tajik people have also strong sense of attachment, love and affection with this great personality. They have declared him as a national hero as the picture of Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (R.A) is printed on their currency notes. The Tajiks call him as Amir Jan (The Lovable Leader / Guide).
The Khatlan has remained a place of attraction for Kashmiris. There are very old relations between the two regions. These relations were fostered after Mir Hamdani stayed in this region for considerable amount of time after the Amir  and his son Mir Mohammad Hamdani, along with a huge galaxy of learned Say’yeds, Ulema, Mashaikh, Hakims and artisans arrived in Kashmir around 14th century A.D. This laid a strong foundation of a new era of submission of the entire populace to a new faith, Islam, which was coupled with Iranian cultural, intellectual and artistic genius; transforming the socio-religious, linguistic, economic and political scenario of Kashmir into a new form and identity. Persian language became the only means for the propagation of Islam not only the for religious preachers and Ulema but gradually Persian became the means of correspondence, communication and the language of research and scholarship so much so that it not only remained official language for 700 years but produced a large number of poets, prose writers, Ulema and scholars  in different fields of knowledge and science. Mir Syed Ali Hamdani not only made the people of Kashmir well versed with the Islamic-Iranian culture, but also paved a way to give boost to their economy. He introduced arts and crafts that were prevailing in Iran and Central Asia. This is how Allama Iqbal has expressed this reality while paying glorious tributes to Hazrat Shahi Hamdani (R.A). He says:
Khita ra Aan shah darya Aasteen
Dad Ilm- u- sant- u- tahzeeb- u- deen
 Afreed  Aan mard Iran-i –Sagir
ba hunar hai gareeb- u- dilpazeer
(That generous king gave knowledge, trade and religion to the region  (Kashmir),
That man gave birth to little Iran,
with the pleasant and agreeable arts and crafts)
Moreover, Ali Sani Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (R.A) gave an everlasting gift to people of Kashmir in the shape of Awradi Fatheia, the divine allegiance and faith. In short the people of Kashmir are indebted to the offerings and contributions of this kindled spirit. Therefore all Kashmiris in different forms and capacities pay their homage to this great Sufi saint and religious leader who led them from darkness to light. The letters of Hazrat Amir Kabir are an ample proof for his advice to the then rulers of Kashmir; impressing upon them to be kind and generous to their subjects.
To express their inner emotions and feelings, the people of Kashmir during his lifetime visited Kulab. In the beginning, when Islam made its way into Kashmir, Shiekh Suliman Kashmiri and his son Shiekh Ahmad Khuskhawn are among those fortunate people who travelled to Kulab in order to seek guidance from Hazrat Amir Kabir. Shiekh Bahaud-Din Ganjbaksh and Shiekh Suliman Kashmiri are among the disciples of Shah Qasim Khatlnai. Both Sufi saints visited Kulab to get the spiritual education from him. They paid glorious tributes to Hazrat-i- Shah Hamdan (R.A). A renowned Sufi saint, religious leader, poet, prose writer, theologian, philosopher, commentator and ambassador of 10-11th century, Shiekh Yaqoob Sarfi Kashmiri (d. 1003 A.H/1594 A. D) had a great faith towards Shah Hamadan. He was himself among his devotees and has accepted him as his spiritual guide. Maulana Shiekh Yaqoob Sarfi in great regard to Hazrat- I- Amir Kabir confessed himself as a poor and humble servant and by heart and soul kept himself for his service as his gatekeeper. In respect of Salari Ajam, Shiekh Yaqoob Sarfi expressed his gratitude in his writings. During his vast and extensive tour of Iran and Central Asia, Shiekh Yaqoob Sarfi paid homage from the entire nation towards the’ Maimar Taqdeeri Umm’ (the builder of the destiny of nation ) at Kulab.  He himself says:
“Musharaf shud Aanja Faqir Haqir
ba t auf-i- Mazar-i- Amir Kabir
Mazar-i- Pur Anwar syed Ali
ki hastum ba jan Bandai Aan wali.”
(This humble servant became honoured,
 with the circumambulation of the grave of Amir Kabir.
The resting place of Syed Ali is full of lights,
as I am the servant with heart and mind of that saint)
An unmatched disciple of Shiekh Yaqoob Sarfi, Mir Mohammad Roshan spent some years as a Mujavir at the Mazar of Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (R.A) and was enlightened by his pure soul. It seems that some Kashmiris while travelling to Khorasan might have visited the Mazar of Hazrat Amir Kabir at Kulab. Late Prof. Shamsud-Din Ahmad during his visit to USSR paid his obeisance at the Mazar. He has written in detail about the resting place of Hazrat Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (R.A) in his book entitled “Shah- I- Hamdan: life and works”. In 1995, with the endeavors of the head of Shah Hamdan Educational and Cultural Trust, Syed Shabir Hamdani, along with a delegation of eight members, visited Kulab and paid their homage at the Mazar. One of the team members namely Ghulam Ali Bakhshi published a booklet as a travelogue highlighting the different aspects of the Mazar of Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (R.A). Moreover, the owner of the valley’s leading and reputed travel agency “Al Hayat Hajj & Omrah travel services”, Wali Waheed arranged a tour package and a five member team visited Kulab in August, 2005.
It is worthwhile to note that the chain of pilgrims, which started in 8th century /14th century, is still in progress and shall continue in future. The government of Tajikistan, by bringing Kulab on the map of pilgrim tourism, has taken a lead in this context. The Government of J&K and Indian government both are well aware of the importance of pilgrim tourism to foster bonds of friendship and revival of these very old relations. Both the governments can take up the matter with Tajik government so that the pilgrims of both the regions freely travel to the pilgrim destination revered by both the people. It will give a boost to tourism sector as well. On the occasion of Two Day International Conferences held by Centre of Central Asian Studies, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, the then ambassador of Tajikistan to India, Mr Said Beigh during his meeting with the Governor of the state N.N Vohra had put forth a suggestion of direct flights between Srinagar and Dushanbe. During his visits to the valley, he also held parleys with the Kashmir Chamber of Commerce and Industries for revival of historic trade relations.
It is the need of hour that the Ministry of culture, J&K government should take a lead and take into confidence the Govt. of India to give impetus in promoting the pilgrimage tourism, culture and trade relations by facilitating visits of the business communities of both the countries. We can also take into consideration the mutual cultural affinities and undertake joint research projects to promote cultural relations and research on scientific and literary works. The Centre of Central Asian Studies, University of Kashmir, Srinagar and Academy of Sciences, Tajikistan could be the co-partners in this endeavor. The Centre of Central Asian Studies and Tajik Academy of Science had in the past created history by publishing jointly the map of Al-khawarazmi. Let us start making joint efforts to prepare a catalogue of the manuscripts about the great personality Hazrat-e-Shah-e- Hamdan.

Read the rest of this entry »

Remembering the great saint – Nund Reshi (RA)

Srinagar: As the Valley today observed the Urs of Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Noorani (RA),  popularly known as Nund Reshi, with a special focus on his teachings and the path of peace and harmony, some attention must also go to preservation of relics and sites associated with the Kashmir’s Patron Saint.

No doubt people of the Valley still hold the relics and sites of this Saint in high esteem and reverence, but the kind of institutional care and preservation it deserves is clearly missing.

During his journeys through Valley’s hill and dale, Sheikh Noor-ud-Din (RA) visited several places. But many of the sites associated with the Saint have neither been documented nor are properly maintained.

This wonderful heritage needs to be documented and developed for promotion of the pilgrimage tourism.

The famous sites where the Saint is believed to have spent time in meditation, and which have been neglected include Gufabal-Qaimoh, Tismur  Pattan, Darigam, Hunchapora, Sheek Rani, Akhal, and Rupwan.

Even though the monumental remains of that period still exist at several of these places, but due to human vandalism and official apathy, the relics and sites associated with this Saint have been deteriorating.

Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Noorani (RA), is learnt to have first meditated in an underground cave at Gufabal-Qaimoh in the southern district of Kashmir. He is said to have been 20 when he took refuge in this cave and spent 12 years inside the cave in meditation.

He also planted an Elm tree near the cave. The tree and cave are still found at the site, and people usually visit this site, during Urs days and pray there.

After living in this cave, he said to have searched for more silent and calm places which he could found in dense forests of Pir Panchal and reached Tismur in the same district of Kulgam. Here he spent one more year in meditation.

A miniature stone mortar and pestle are seen outside the Sufi shrine of Tismur and it is believed that the Saint used them in preparing of his food which exclusively consisted of ‘Yopalhak’ and ‘Qaslin-hand’ – wild forest herbs.

Kheejogepora is another important site associated with the Saint. There is a spring attributed to the Saint here and many traditions are related with this spring.

Mukhtamul site is also associated with this Saint. It is near Vecharnag in Srinagar (near Soura). Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Noorani (RA) is said to have spent about six months here on a stone slab in meditation.

It is here that Saint is said to have encountered Yavanmachi, a beautiful dancer who come to the Saint to turn him away from meditation. But it is said that the encounter with Saint transformed her completely and she gave up her life of sex and sleaze and became a pious woman.

Similarly, there are other few Reshi sites which have been forgotten altogether.

Today when while Kashmir is commemorating the Saint’s annual Urs, it is time that both people and the authorities also wake up to the need of preserving the sites, monuments and relics associated with this 14th century Saint and pledge to document and preserve his oral and built heritage. IMG_20151011_084922

Awrade Fat’hea Virtues

Posted: October 2, 2015 by kashmirsufis in Uncategorized

Awrade Fatiha Virtues in urdu

auradi fatiyah eik roohani tohfah

Tradition is on a steady decline not in the West only, but in the East as well. The loss of faith in long lasting values especially religious values is a common phenomenon.

Religious places and learning centres are losing credibility, family as an institution has been passing through the most difficult times. The political system has also lost credibility. However with all these concern it would be naïve to jump the conclusion that ‘De –Traditionalisation’ or decline of tradition is a common phenomenon.

Muslims have long history of prolific scholars, saints and authors who have kept tradition alive amid an imminent fall.One among such traditionalists is Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani (R.A) born in Hamdan on Rajab714/22 October 1314. He was a religious scholar, prolific writer, political theorist and a widely travelled Sufi. He was author of about 170 books. Besdies he was a staunch traditionalist who never evades tradition, be it the field of Politics, Society, Economics or Religion.

The doctrines of Hamadani’s philosophy are based on traditions taught by known traditionalists like Ibn-i-Arabi, Junaid, Mansoor Halaj,Ghazali, Najamudin Kabra, Ibn-i-Farid, Simnani etc. He had a deep influence of ancestral traditionalists who represent the tradition of sacred knowledge system of Islam and Muslims.

He was both an alim (scholar) and an arif (Sufi). He used to guide rulers of the time. His Risala-i-Maktubat, a collection of letters, comprises letters to rulers in which he gives them guidance on political and religious matters from a traditionalistic perspective. His treatise- Zakhiratu’l-Muluk- contains regulations (Qawa’id) regarding both the “Spiritual (M’anwi) and mundane (Suri)” matters. Though he always remain way from rulers.

Fallowing the tradition he strongly prescribed Master-Disciple (Peer-Muridi) Islamic teaching which many Ulemas are now opposing. He like all other traditional sufis believes that no one can travel the path of Allah without the guidance of a preceptor. He says that a person with religious knowledge’s and mystical experiences can lead an individual from darkness to light. Sayid like most of the Sufis in a traditional way hold that love of Allah emerges from gnosis (Ma‘rifa), ‘greater the Ma ‘rifa, greater is the Love of Allah’.

One of the remarkable contributions of Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani (RA) is socio-economic development after his arrival in Kashmir. He introduced traditional arts and crafts to treat a fragile socio-economic structure of Kashmir. Hamadani adeptly introduced sacred traditional art [more or less] while preaching Islam. Introducing Khanquahs, wood-carving especially in religious paces, wooden architecture, Persian arts and shawl weaving – he will be remembered for all such glorious traditions

History is a witness that when Hamadani arrives in this part of Asia, social system was pluralistic, culturally diverse and economically weak. But by carrying his sacred traditional knowledge, teachings and experiences he changed history. Without studying him, we can’t understand the history and tradition of Kashmir.

(The author is Secretary Literary Forum bandipora)

The Shah of Hamdan: by prof Naseem rafiabadi

Posted: September 24, 2015 by kashmirsufis in Auliyaallah
Syed Ali Hamadani (RA) was a great reformer and a visionary who has impacted  almost all the aspects of the lives of Kashmiris .Be it religious or spiritual dimension or social and political, be it the economic activity by introducing the arts and crafts of Iran and Central Asia in Kashmir or the instructions to the Kings and rulers. In all these matters the influence and impact of Syed Ai Hamadani cannot be undermined.

He has influenced the Muslim Rishis and Hindu ascetics equally by his deep spiritual indoctrination he was  espousing. His Son Mir Mohammad Hamadani continued his mission in Kashmir and was instrumental in initiating the local Rishi Saint Shaikh Nooruddin Wali into his Sufi discipleship, thus paving the way for a long and enduring process of Islamisation of not only Kashmir but even the localised mystic orders of Kashmir like Rishism.

He was the only preacher of Islam in Kashmir and Baltistan (Northern Areas, Pakistan) who brought a subtle change in the life styles of Kashmiri masses and provided them with Islamic values and established the Persian culture in the soil of Kashmir. In this way Kashmir was transformed into a new phase of its civilizational march from Buddhist and Hinduised moorings to an Islamic and Iranian one. It was due to these Persian influences on the socio.-cultural life of the people in Kashmir that Iqbal has given reference to Kashmir in his poetry as Iran –i-Sagheer meaning little Iran.

Apart from the culture and mannerism the cultural traits of Kashmiri literary life were also influenced greatly by his arrival to Kashmir. From Persia were received these genres :”new poets genres –ghazl  ,qasidah, marsiya, rubai, mathanavi, na’at and Manqabat Muslims introduced in Kashmir “from Persia as the only genres prevelent in Kashmir prior to the Muslims were vaakh, watsun, and shrukh.

He preached Islam and affected the conversion of thousands of people from Buddhism to Islam by his great efforts. He has constructed many Khânqâhs, mosques and memorial places in these areas, some places are very popular in Asia particularly “Chaqchan Mosque” a most beautiful handicraft mosque.

To start with, Mir Syed Ali Hamadani, the apostle of Kashmir, better known as the “Shâh of Hamadan” and ‘Ameer e Kabeer’ (1314- 1384) is arguably the most celebrated of these Syeds, coming from Iran and Central Asia in Medieval period and who have blessed Kashmir and have accelerated the process of Islamisation of Kashmir which has continued after them and is still continuing unabated.

Syed Ali Hamadani has presented a comprehensive code of conduct for an individual and a ruler to lead a virtuous life, which could finally lead him to eternal salvation (Sa‘adah). In this scheme he has not lost sight of earning by lawful means and spending one’s possessions in the way of God. He has laid emphasis on earning from Halal (lawful) sources, which is a hallmark of his sufi thought.

A companion of the Prophet (saws) , Khalid bin Waleed narrated the following:
A Bedouin came one day to the Prophet and said to him, “O, Messenger of Allah! I’ve come to ask you a few questions about the affairs of this life and the Hereafter.” The Prophet responded “Ask what you wish!”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like to be the most learned of men.”
The Prophet replied, “Fear Allah, and you will be the most learned of men.”
The Bedouin said, “I wish to be the richest man in the world.”
The Prophet replied, “Be contented, and you will be the richest man in the world.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like to be the most just man.”
The Prophet replied, “Desire for others what you desire for yourself, and you will be the most just of men.”
The Bedouin said, “I want to be the best of men.”
The Prophet replied, “Do good to others and you will be the best of men.”
The Bedouin said, “I wish to be the most favored by Allah.”
The Prophet replied, “Engage much in Allah’s praise, and you will be most favored by Him.”
The Bedouin said,“I’d like to complete my faith.”
The Prophet replied, “If you have good manners you will complete your faith.”
The Bedouin said, “I wish to be among those who do good.”
The Prophet replied, “Adore Allah as if you see Him. If you don’t see Him, Know that He sees you. In this way you will be among those who do good.”
The Bedouin said, “I wish to be obedient to Allah.”
The Prophet replied, “If you observe Allah’s commands you will be obedient.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like to be free from all sins.”
The Prophet replied, “Bathe yourself from impurity and you will be free from all sins.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like to be raised on the Day of Judgment in the light.”
The Prophet replied, “Don’t wrong yourself or any other creature, and you will be raised on the Day of Judgment in the light.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like Allah to bestow His mercy on me.”
The Prophet replied, “If you have mercy on yourself and on others, Allah will grant you mercy on the Day of Judgment.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like my sins to be very few.”
The Prophet replied, “If you seek the forgiveness of Allah as much as you can, your sins will be very few.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like to be the most honorable man.”
The Prophet replied, “If you do not complain to any fellow creature, you will be the most honorable of men.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like to be the strongest of men.”
The Prophet replied, “If you put your trust in Allah, you will be the strongest of men.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like to enlarge my provision.”
The Prophet replied, “If you keep yourself pure, Allah will enlarge your provision.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like to be loved by Allah and His messenger.”
The Prophet replied, “If you love what Allah and His messenger love, you will be among their beloved ones.”
The Bedouin said, “I wish to be safe from Allah’s wrath on the Day of Judgment.”
The Prophet replied, “If you do not lose your temper with any of your fellow creatures, you will be safe from the wrath of Allah on the Day of Judgment.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like my prayers to be responded.”
The Prophet replied, “If you avoid forbidden actions your prayers will be responded.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like Allah not to disgrace me on the Day of Judgment.”
The Prophet replied, “If you guard your chastity, Allah will not disgrace you on the Day of Judgment.”
The Bedouin said, “I’d like Allah to provide me with a protective covering on the Day of Judgment.”
The Prophet replied, “Do not uncover your fellow peoples faults, and Allah will provide you with a covering protection on the Day of Judgment.”
The Bedouin said, “What will save me from sins?”
The Prophet replied, “Tears, humility and illness.”
The Bedouin said, “What are the best deeds in the eyes of Allah?”
The Prophet replied, “Gentle manners, modesty and patience.”
The Bedouin said, “What are the worst evils in the eyes of Allah?”
The Prophet replied, “Hot temper and miserliness.”
The Bedouin said, “What alleviates the wrath of Allah in this life and in the Hereafter?”
The Prophet replied, “Concealed charity and kindness to relatives.”
The Bedouin said, “What extinguishes hell’s fires on the Day of Judgment?”
The Prophet replied, “Patience in adversity and misfortunes.”
(Related by Imam Ibn Hambal)