Posts Tagged ‘divine’

AbstractKashmir since the establishment of Muslim rule had
remained an important Centre of Sufism. It acquired fame as
Raeshwar (valley of Rishis). Among the sufi saints of Medieval
Kashmir, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi occupies an important place. He
was a man of international repute for his learning, scholarship
and piety. The present paper throws a brief light on the life and
times of Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi and his literary contribution and
apart from that the paper discusses in detail the role of sufis
particularly Shaikh’s role in the Mughal conquest of Kashmir.

Index Terms– Conquest, Kashmir, Learning, Mughal, Poet,
Shaikh, Sufism,
I. INTRODUCTION
he history of Sufism in Kashmir is spread over a long period
of time starting from Bulbul Shah to the Sufi poets of
modern age. Kashmir is known as
Reshwaer (Valley of Rishis).
Sufi saints had always been the inspiring people of Kashmir by
their subtle mystical insights. Among the well-known sufi saints
of Kashmir, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi has been the distinguished
figure not only among his contemporaries but among all the Sufis
of his age. He was displayed with the accomplishments of
learning and the perfect qualities which distinguished him as a
pious man.
1 Modern scholars call him ‘Shaikh-ul-Islam.’2 He
was a man of international reputation for his piety, scholarship
and learning. He had occupied an important place in the history
of Kashmir and during the time Akbar he was given the title
Haji Sani’.3
Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi was the most prominent Sufi saints of
sixteenth century belonging to the Kubarwiya order.
4 The
Kubarwiya order had its remarkable influence on the different
aspects of the life of Kashmiris. People in the various walks of
life used to practice Sufi-value system including
sama as
ascribed by this famous order and work for the betterment of
humanity irrespective of any consideration. haikh Yaqub Sarfi belonged to the Ganai family of
Kashmir. He was born in 928 A.H/ 1521 A.D in Srinagar.
P4F5P His
father’s name was Shaikh Hassan Ganai
P5F6P who belonged to the
Asami clan. The Asami clan traces its descent from Asim, A son
of Caliph Umar (PBUH) and it was because of this he was also
called as Asmi.
P6F7P
زا سفاد عاسم کہ آں نيک خو
بده ابن فاروق اعظم نِکو
گنائی لقب داشت ابن عاصمی
محرمی
ِ
کشاده خدايش در
ِ گنائی است دانا بہ عرف ديار
بہ عثمان گنائی شداد يار غار
و کشمير مثلش کسے بر نخواست
زو صفش مقصر فہوم رسا است
Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi studied under Mulla Aini who came to
Kashmir from Sialkot and the later breathed here the last and is
buried in the graveyard of Shaikh Bahauddin Ganjbaksh. Mulla
Aini was the pupil of the great Mulla Abdur Rahman jami (Jam
is a place in Herat). Mulla Aini, on seeing the intelligence and
scholarly qualities of Shaikh and power to acquire the knowledge
prophesied that Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi would rise to the place of
Jami due to his literary imminence and will acquire the fame as
‘Jami Sani’ (second jami).
P7F8P About which Shaikh Yaqub has
himself given a clue in one of his verse
P8F9P
بعد خسرو بود جامی بلبل باغ سخن
کيست جز صرفی کنوں آں مرغ خوشخواں راعوض
After Mulla Aini, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi studied under Mulla
Basir Khan Khandbhavani.
P9F10P Thereafter Sarfi Travelled
throughout the world to quench his thirst for acquiring
knowledge. He visited the places like Sialkot, Lahore, Kabul,
Samarqand, Mashhad, Mecca, Medina etc.
P10F11
Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi became the spiritual successor of the
great master Shaikh Hussain of Khawarizm and acquired honour by performing the pilgrimages to the two great holy places of
Islam (Mecca and Medina) twice in his life.12 He received from
Shaikh Ibn Hajar a license to give instructions in the traditions of
Muhammad (PBUH) and clad in the robes of a Shaikh. He
travelled much and visited most of the Shaikhs of Arabia and
Persia and profited much by his intercourse with them and
received the authority to assume prerogatives of a religious
teacher and spiritual guide and as such he had many disciples
both in Hindustan and Kashmir.13 Shaikh also got benefited by
his intercourse with the famous sufi saint Shaikh Salim Chasti of
Fatehpur Sikri. They both spent a lot of time together during the
time of Hajj which was the last Hajj of Shaikh Salim Chasti.
They both exchanged the views of their respective orders. Sheikh
Salim taught him the teachings of Chasti order and learnt from
him the teachings of Kubarwiya order.14 Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi was
also well versed with the writings of Ibn-ul-Arabi.
Apart from worldly knowledge, Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi was deeply
interested in the spiritual knowledge and for this; he spent a lot of
time in the Khankah of Mir Syed Ali Hamdani in Srinagar.P14F15P In
the Khankah, Mir Syed Ali Hamdani appeared in his dream and
asked him to go to Khawarizm and visit Makhdoom Ali Shaikh
Kamaluddin Hussain Khawarizmi. After this Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi
left for Khawarizm via Sialkot, Lahore and Kabul and presented
himself before Sheikh Khawarizmi. Sheikh Khawarizm was one
of the great sufi saints of Kubarwiya order. He received Sheikh
Yaqub Sarfi with great respect and assigned him the work to
bring wood for the langarkhana of Khankah.P15F16P After some time
Sheikh Khawarizmi gave him the permission to return back to
Kashmir and perform the religious duties and was asked to look
after his parents.P16F17P After some time he revisited Khawarizm for
the second time and from there he went to Meshhad, Khotan,
Mecca and Medina. From Mecca, he received sannad and the
necessary license to give instructions in the traditions of Hadith
from Sheikh ibn Hajjar Makki who was a renowned Sheikh and
the great teacher of Hadith.P17F18P Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi also visited
many of the cities of Hindustan like Ahmedabad, Surat etc.
where he met many of the sufi saints and obtained spiritual
knowledge from them about which he wrote.P18F19P
احمد آباد و بہر گوشہ نگارے ديگر نتواں يافت بايں حسن ديارے ديگر
کارايں خلق ہمہ عاشقی و معشوقی است کس دريں شہر نديدم بکارے ديگر
گرچہ ايں شہر پرازما ہو شان است ولے جز ابوالفتح نخواہيم نگارے ديگر
گرچہ فارغ از يا ريم آں بے پروا حاہ ل کہ شوم مائيل يارے ديگر
It is necessary to mention that apart from Sheikh Salim,
many other Sufis of Hindustan were closely associated with Sarfi
and foremost among them are Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi also
known as Mujaddid Alfi Sani (reformer of the second
millennium). He studied the traditions of Prophet and Tafsir and

also the teachings of Kubarwiya order from Sheikh Yaqub
Sarfi.
P19F20
Shaikh was a great sufi of his age. At the age of just seven,
Shaikh memorized the whole Quran.
P20F21P Abul Fazl also considers
him as the greatest authority on religious matters
P21F22P He was also a
great poet of his age. He himself writes in his
Diwan that he was
just eight years of age when he started writing poetry in
Persian.
P22F23P
چودر سال ہشتم نہاد دم قدم
زطبعم رواں گشت شعر عجم
Abul Fazl praised him and says that he was well aquanted
with all branches of poetry.
P23F24P He wrote with the pen name of
“Sarfi”
P24F25P Mulla Abdul Qadir Badauni who was a close associate
of Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi praised him and says that he was among
the great personalities of the age. He was illustrious and relied
upon as an authority on all brancehes of learning which are
treated of in Arabic, such as Quranic commentaries, the
traditions of Prophet and Sufism. He was an authorized religious
leader.
P25F26P When Sarfi departed from Lahore to Kashmir, He wrote
a letter to Badauni from the other side of the river Ravi in which
Sheikh writes, “I hope you will not entirely efface the memory of
me from the margin of your heart and that you will adopt the
graceful habit of remembering the absent. If you should have any
need of Kashmiri paper for rough notes and drafts, I hope that
you will inform me of the fact so that I may send you from
Kashmir, the rough copy of my commentaries, the writing of
which can be washed from the paper with water so completely
that no traces of ink will remain, as you yourself have seen.”
P26F27P
On reaching Kashmir, Sheikh wrote another letter to Badauni
which was his last letter to him. In this letter Sheikh wrote, “I
hope that whenever you sit in Nawab Faizi’s apartment of
fragrant grass (
khas khana) on the floor, with its matting cooler
than the breezes of Kashmir, in the midday heat of summer,
drinking the water which, though originally warm, has been
cooled with ice and listening to sublime talk and witty
conversation, you will think of me, the captive of the hardships
of disappointment.”
P27F28
It is an established fact that Kashmir has never been able to
produce a man, a religious scholar, a sufi saint or a poet who can
equal the place of Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi in History. He possessed a
vast worldly and spiritual knowledge and it was because of this
he is famous as
‘Jami al Kalimat Souri wal Masnavi’.P28F29P
Although, he was not involved in worldly pleasures, yet the
rulers and their nobles had respect for him. They used to listen to
his advises and practice over it.
P29F30P Humaiyun and Akbar had a
wonderful belief on him and conferred distinction on him by

dmitting him to the honour of their society, regarded him with
gracious favour, so that he was held in high estimation and much
honoured. He was generous and open handed beyond anything
that can be imagined of his contemporaries.
31
The number of literary works by Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi is not
known and neither all of them are available. Some of the famous
works include-
Sawati-ul-Ilham (it is an Arabic taqriz/
introduction to Faizi’s Tafsir-ul-Quran), completed a Khamsa,32
Manasik-i-Hajj,33 Sharah-Sahih al Bukhari34, Kunz-al-Jawahir,
Risala e Azkar.
35 Apart from that Sheikh Yaqub Safri is also
credited with a number of works like
Diwan-i-Sarfi36, Treatises
on the art of composing engimas and also Quatrains (
Rubaiyat)
on the mysticism of sufi with a
Tafsir/commentary37
Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi occupied an important place in the
political history of Kashmir. He was the pivotal figure behind the
Mughal conquest of Kashmir. In 1557, when Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi
was thirty-five, the Shah Miri dynasty was overthrown by the
Chaks. The Chaks traced their origins to Baltistan. Being from
outside Kashmir, they were not particularly concerned about the
welfare of the people of Kashmir. The Chak rulers persecuted the
Sunni subjects. This caused several Sunni scholars to leave
Kashmir and seek shelter elsewhere.
38 As an important Sunni
leader and scholar, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi is said to have been a
thorn in the Sultan’s flesh, and therefore, a conspiracy was
plotted to have him killed. When the Shaikh heard about the
conspiracy, he left Kashmir, and went on a long journey that took
him to Samarqand, Iran and then finally to the holy cities of
Mecca and Medina, where he spent several months in the
company of accomplished Islamic scholars, studying various
Quranic commentaries (
tafasir) and the Traditions of the Prophet
(
hadith). When he finally returned to Kashmir, the political
situation was grim, with the Sunnis labouring under considerable
oppression under Chak rule. Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi tried his best to
normalize the situation but that was never possible under those
circumstances. A royal decree was issued ordering that
Azan/
callto prayer should be offered in shia manner and the name of
Hazrat Ali should be mentioned. Qazi Musa was killed for not
mentioning the name of Hazrat Ali in the callto prayer (
azan) and
his body was tied to the tail of an elephant and dragged through
the streets of Srinagar. This provoked the Sunnis of the town,
who rose up in protest. In order to put an end to the persecution
of the Sunnis, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi and a group of his companions

Baba Daud Khaki, Baba Ismail Anchari and Baba Mehdi
Suharwardi went to the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar at
Agra, requesting him to send an army to Kashmir and overthrow
the Chak rule.
39 In their audience with Akbar, Shaikh Yaqub
Sarfi and his companions insisted that after Akbar took over the
administration of Kashmir, he should ensure full freedom of
religion to all its people; That there should be no interference
with local commerce and trade; That no Kashmiri should be
enslaved; That the practice of beggar or compulsory labour be
abolished and that those who had been associated with the Chak
regime should be divested of their powers.
40 Akbar gave his
consent to these conditions, and then dispatched an army under
Mirza Shah Rukh against Chak ruler, in December 1585.
41
Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi himself accompanied this army. 42 The
Mughal invasion was more a reaction in anger than a seriously
thought-out plan, neither the season was suitable nor was the
internal conditions suitable for launching such an attack. The
leaders of the army had urge to wait for some months till the
roads are cleared of snow and should enter Kashmir through
Bhimber which was relatively a better route but Akber in haste
ordered them to march through the Pakhli route.
43 The Chaks
fought valiantly and defeated the Mughals. Then, in 1586, Akbar
sent a larger army to Kashmir, under Mirza Qasim Khan, which
inflicted a decisive defeat on the Chaks, and Yaqub Shah Chak
was forced to flee to Kishtwar, where he died in 1592. In this
way, the last independent Kashmiri dynasty came to an end, and
Kashmir was made a part of the Mughal Empire.
With the Mughal takeover of Kashmir, some Sunnis are said to
have launched stern reprisals against the Shi’as. Shaikh Yaqub
Sarfi is said to have bitterly protested against this, and is credited
with having made efforts to restore peace and communal
harmony.
II. CONCLUSION
Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi occupies a place of prominence in the
history of Medieval Kashmir. He had acquired international
reputation for his learning, scholarship and piety. He was
displayed with the accomplishments of learning and perfect
qualities that distinguish him as the greatest sufi of his age. He
was the greatest authority of religious matters. He traveled
throughout the world to quench his thirst for knowledge. He was
the author of many sublime and beautiful works including

Khamsa, Commentaries of Quran and Hadith, Treatises,
Quatrains etc. He devoted his life to normalize the sectarian
tensions between the Shias and Sunnis of Kashmir. When the
situation was out of control he himself along with his
companions went to the court of Akbar and assured him of
necessary support for the invasion of Kashmir and when Akbar

dispatched the army Shaikh accompanied and guided them.
Above all Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi was a man for which Kashmir
feels proud. Though he did not left behind his successor because
his only son ‘Muhammad Yousuf’ died in infancy, yet Shaikh
had Khalifas/disciples throughout India and Kashmir like Mir
Muhammad Khalifa, Shah Qasim Hakkani, Arif Billah,
Habibullah Naushahri
44 etc. He died at the age of seventy- five in
1594 AD, in Srinagar. The tomb of Shaik Yaqub Sarfi attracts
visitors and is known as
Ziyarat-i-Ishan.
from:- Sameer Ahmad Sofi
Research Scholar, CAS, Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2016

references:-
1 Abdul Qadir Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, Vol. III (tr. W.
Haig), Patna, 1973, p. 200.

2 Peerzada Muhammad Tayyab Hussain Kashmiri, Auliya e
Kashmir
, Nazir Publishers, Lahore, 1988, p. 38
3 Auliya e Kashmir, op. cit., p. 38
4 A.Q.Rafiqi, Sufism in Kashmir from the Fourteenth to the
sixteenth Century
, Bharatiya Publishing House, Delhi, 1984, p.
114

5Khawaja M. Azam Diddamari, Wakiat-i-Kashmir (Urdu
translation by Hameed Yazdani), Srinagar, 1998, p. 224

6The literal meaning of Ganai is learned man, His family was
since centuries well learned and that is why they came to be
known as Ganai, for details, see, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi,
Dewan-iSarfi, With an introduction by Mir Habibullah Kamli,
S.P.College Library, Srinagar, (1387 A.H), p. 2.

7 Ibid
8Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224; Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p.3;
9
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 3
10Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224; Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p.3;
11
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p.3; G.M.D Sufi, Kashir : Being A
History of Kashmir from Earliest Times to Our Own,
p. 360
12 Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224
13 Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, III volumes, Vol. III,
(translated and edited by Sir W. Haig), Academica Asiatica,
Patna, 1973, p. 200

14
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 4.
15
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 4.
16 Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224; Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit.,p. 4.
17 Diddamari, op. cit, p. 225
18 For details see, Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 4.
19 Ibid, p. 5.
20
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 5
21 Ibid, p. 3; Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224
22 Abul Fazl, op. cit., Ain –i-Akbari, III Volumes, Vol. I, (tr.
Blochman), Low Price Publications, Calcutta, 2011, p. 191

23
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 3
24 Ain-i-Akbari, vol,I, op. cit., p. 651
25 Badauni, op. cit., p. 200
26 Ibid
27 Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, p. 202.
28 Ibid, p. 203
29
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 6.
30 Ibid
31 Badauni, op. cit., p. 201.
32 Khamsa is a series of five Masnavis also known as Panj-Gunj
which includes
Masalik ul Akhyar, Wamiq-i-Uzra, LailaMajnun, Makhaz un Nabi and Muqamat Murshid. These five
works were written in imitation of
Khamsa-i-Nizami Jami),
See Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, p. 200 n., Diddamari,
op. cit.,p. 226.

33 Manasik-i-Hajj, It is written in Arabic prose and explains the
rules and regulations of the pilgrimage.

34 It is a Persian commentary in prose on the Sahih-al-Bukhari of
Muhammad bin Ismail Bukhari.

35 This work is devoted to the importance of the Zikr and to the
legality of
Zikr-i-Jahr.
36 It is a collection of Ghazals and Ruba’iyat
37 For details see Dewan-i-Sarfi, p. 6
38 Diddamari, op. cit., p. 225
39 Auliya-e-Kashmir, op. cit., p. 39; see also P.N.K.Bamzai, A
History of Kashmir: Political, Social and Cultural,
Delhi,
1962, p. 346

40 P.N.K.Bamzai, Op. Cit., 353
41 Abul Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, Vol. I, (Blochman), op. cit., p. 479.
42 Abul Fazl. Akbarnama, vol. III, (tr. H. Beveridge), Low price
Publications, delhi, 1939, p. 715

43 Abul Fazl. Akbarnama, vol. III, op. cit., pp. 722-23

Genealogy of Alamdar-e- Kashmir…
The Paradisal pleasance of Kashmir does not merely mean the beauty and symmetry which this sphere of the globe
possesses but in fact means the grandeur of its inhabitants who have made its surroundings so fragrant that the
perfumes evaporated to vast areas of human habitations and atmospheres. From time immemorial the milky way of
the firmament of Kashmir did possess glittering stars emitting fluorescence to remove the stygian darkness amid
the terrains and lofty areas of the terrene. The brightest star appeared on the firmament in the shape of Sheikh Noor
ud Din who is the lone son of the soil enjoying the status of a flag bearer (Alamdar), besides the great sheikh of the
world.
Sheikh is said to have been born on Friday the 25th Rabiul Awal, 774 Hijri corresponding to 24th of September 1373
A.D. The genealogy displayed by Naseeb ud Din Ghazi (disciple of Sheikh) is as under:
Raja Ogra Sanz……… Drupta Sanz……… Zanga sanz…………. Hunar Sanz…….. Wogra Sanz……….. Salar Sanz………. Nund
Sanz.
Mohi ud din Miskeen the well known author of “Tarikhi Kabir” states that the ancestors of this great man belonged
to Kishtwar area of Jammu & Kashmir and were the rulers enjoying the valorous state of Sanz -¬ The brave. Owing
to political instability in the region they migrated to this part of the region. The then rulers of Kashmir did not only
grant them the refuge but also granted them the fief dom of Rupvan, a village in North-East region of Chrar-i-Shareif,
03kms away from the township. Miskeen Jots down that Zanga Sanz the great grandfather of Sheikh was an
advisor to Khumni- a great grocer and ruler of village Tilsara located in the Eastern side of Chrar-i-Sharief 02kms
away from the town. Khumni was murdered in the upheaval of Dalchu and Hunnar Sanz the son of Zanga Sanz
remained hidden in dark dense forests of Chrar-i-Sharief which was then known as “Tsrar Van”. After confinement
among conifers did he appear in village “Gud Sathu” situated at Chadoora Budgam road and got settled there. Salar
sanz the beloved father of Sheikh was influenced by Yasmin Rishi and accepted Islam & was named as Salar ud Din.
Though historians are mum and mute about Salar sanz but the verse revealed by Sheikh implies his prosperity and
affluence as he says,
“Kaimoh kis Salar-dins….. Yes dowlatch manz boud aayie”
Means Salar-ud-din the inhabitant of kaimoh deserves felicitations as he yielded among riches to adopt the doctrine
of Islam .This proves that sheikh was nourished and cherished in a well-to-do family with all luxuries and dainties,
rejecting the concocted stories designed and devised for him. Sheikh’s mother a pious and noble lady did hail from
“khee” a village of in kulgam District. Historians have highlighted only the spiritual conduct of Sheikh and have
ignored his other dimensions of life which include his scholarly behaviour, linguistic approach, researcher’s aptitude,
philosophical temperament and missionary zeal. The tide of time has masticated his scientific innovations which
are eminent from his Kalam.
The details can have from my paper on scientific aptitude of this great man which I delivered in university of
Kashmir on 03 day international seminar on Shah-i- Hamdan’s contribution to learning & society. The paper is
published in local daily of Kashmir Frontier of 15 March 2012.
Falsified stories have been attributed to this man by our historians and writers either due to political hedges or
timely tides which is a separate debatable discussion. Sheikh proved sharp witted from the early childhood and did
posses a capacious brain to feel and catch temperamental beats and throbs of the time. He was a great philosopher
and a true time server of his time. He happened to be a great scholar and had a full command on knowledge. His
linguistic aptitude shows his majesty and stateliness. His multidimensional personality is the outcome of his multi
phased poetry which proves to be the sole alchemy for refinement of a multi shaped creature like man. His poetry
seems to be a perfect medicament, a complete therapy and a well known remedy for ailing and failing human souls
& spirits at different times and occasions.
Once the verses revealed makes a man to feathers for aerial trips but thereby abides him to drupe down to dust to
abide and adore one omniscient and omnipotent lord. His appeal for killing one’s appetite from worldly charms &
beauties do teach and preach the man the modes and styles of this world and world after. He analyses the different
aspects of life with scientific and innovative modes and moments. His message does not pertain to a sect of society but the humanity as a whole. His plain and chaste phrases undoubtedly sensitize the human intelligentsia
and makes a man to shun his lustful behaviour and to get accelerated for human aid and help. His verses act as
stimulants for secretions of wit and wisdom for thought full innovations of this living world and he proved to be the
best annotator of Quran.
Sheikh was a great missionary and he started missionary schools for both the genders of the society across the
length and breadth of his native land. Trained missionaries were plotted to disseminate the theology of Islam to the
grass root level. For its percolation he used the soft, sweet and candid sap of his mother tongue which created a
vigorous pressure to accelerate the human wit and will. Hardly a place is found in the entire terrain where the sole of
Shiekh would not have enjoyed the bill and coo of the soil/dust.
A like a jeweller, Sheikh with the art & craft of wit & winsome designed a long chain of his followers who in close
association with the society taught the people the essence of great religion. Such grooming did create a bonton
atmosphere around the Alps and dales of Kashmir. Among these followers; comrades like Latif ud Din, Zain ud din,
Bam ud din & Nassar ud din, Dhut Ded, Shanga bi & Sala Bi are of great importance. Sheikh is said to have remained
stationed for a long time at Draigam in Budgam, Chimmar in Devsor, Hoonchipora in Beerwah and Rup Van in Chrar-
i-Sharief Budgam. Besides he had brief visits to almost all the parts of Kashmir. Sheikh during his life selected Chrar-
i-Sharief as a permanent abode where he was laid for eternal peace in 842 A.H corresponding to 1438AD.

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25591565_2001688770087024_5724988426300741392_nPrakash Ram Bhatt is one of the reputed Kashmiri Sufi poets of the 9th century .Prakash Ram well
known poet of Kashmir worthy of appreciation for his impression, spectacular and simple writings.
Prakash Ram was a devotee of Shri Rama, Prakash Ram was born in 1819 Kawarigam, a small village
Qauzi gund and he left for his eternal journey at his native place 1877.Prakash Ram was born in the house
of Mezrah Pandith,Mezrah Pandit the father Of Prakash Ram was an illiterate person but sent his son to
the Madrasa (school) for acquire knowledge .Merzah Pandit being uneducated person was very keen
about his child`s education. From the childhood Prakash Ram was honesty and pious. He was a reserved
man and used to speak less and most of the time remained alone. Prakash Ram was one of Greatest
devotees of Lord Shri Ram and due to this fondness. he penned The Ramayana in two Kashmiri language
and name it Rama Avatar charyit and Lav Khush charyit. This Ramayana became first epic Poetry ever
Written in Kashmiri and the most important contribution to the kashmiri literature . The Ramayana got
renowed throughout Kashmir particularly Kashmiri pandits. Prakash Ram has also written Akanandun and
krishanavtaar Lila and as such he got reorganization in every corner of the valley because of
Ramayana.Prakash Ram has used the name Shri Ram`s family in many of his poems like kind Dashratha
(father) Mother koushaliya,Laxmana,Bharath etc. Koushaliya hindeh gobroo,karoo goore goore,Paryo ram
ramie ,Karoo goore goore,meh depyamie rama rajia,Khoush aawie ni woureh maajeh,Aadnek seer
baajia,,Karoo goore goorem,Atchen hund gaash kout gaoom,Seryeh Prakash kout gaoom kehnti tchem
neh aash kout gaoom,,Karoo goore goore. Prakash Ram lived a simple life which is also observed in his
poetry,his verses simple in style with trouble-free words.this quality made him unknown among general
masses of valley. Once Praksh Ram as usual was praying and was singled in devine meditation.All of
sudden Goddess Bhagvati got appeared ahead of him.Prakash Ram stunned to see Goddess Bhagvati
footing infront of him.Goddess Baghvati said,I love u being for so simple and isolated from this world in
the contemplation of God and you should meet me tommarrow at ~Reid Naag~ (a famous spring of the
village where Goddess baghvati used to dwell).Prakash Ram was joyous and could explain this felicity
and anxiously waiting for the day.Next Day Prakash Ram arrived at `Reid Naag` to meet Goddess
Baghvati.Goddess Baghvati again go visible before him with a bowl of honey in her hand. She offered the
honey to Prakash Ram to eat it.Prakash Ram received willingly and ate the honey.After the meeting with
Goddess,Prakash Ram commenced his daily conducts as usual but an emergent transformation was
sensed by him.Till the meet he was a good poet but after Prakash Ram was incredible,he started to write
down Poems with great profundity,meaning and rhythm,Goddess Bhagvati bestowed him enormous
power of thinking and writing. Gaoom Travith Dil tchum Meh Dazaan, Tchum Neh Wazaan Sitaare Nayee,
Siryeh Prakashi Kartam Yon Payaee, Laie Woath Tiem Tachi Tali Krayaee, Pashe Panne Tchet Tchet Tchet
Neeraan, Tchum Neh Wazaan Sitaar Nayee… Prakash Ram being a Hindu Written verses which are being reited by Muslim Sufi in Mehfil-i-Samma functions.Parkash Ram was amystic poet,who enjoyed his life in
divine company. From early age he was extremely attracted to spiritual deeds which he agained through
consecrated efforts in the path of love.Parkash Ram was reasonably influenced by Islamtoo;he has
poetized beautiful lines in the grand and idealistic nobility of Prophet Muhammad..saw…in these lines he
mentions the begining creation of the universe.. Aashiq Tche zindeh Roozan Loluk Quran per perh,
Beshak Kar-i-Irfan Thavaan Bayan ker kerh, Awalie Ishq Tchu Tashooq Panuie Gatchum Meh Mashooq, Ad
kurnie Padeh Nooraan,Muhammad .Saw. Naw Ker Kerh, Prakash Bhat Tchuie Miskeen,Peerus Kaaran
Afreen; Chaw Tam Meh Moie Piyapie Moie Khaan Tchi Tche Ber Berh.(Loves are Breathing coz they
believe love as Quran undoubtedly utter about oneness of God In the begining God fell in love anad craved
to see his beloved Then he created The Noor, Named it Muhammad .SAW. PRakash Bhatt is
poor,extolments his murshid Make me drink of divinity,thy cantina is fully sated) . In the above mentioned
lines clear that Prakash Ram had deep Knowledge,awareness and understanding about The Holy quran
and Holy Ahadith As Prophet Muhammad.Saw. say: .Ana min Noor-il-Lahhin Wal Khalku Kulhum Min
Noori.(The first creation of All Mighty is the creation of my NOOR from his own Noor and latter whatever
is Created is created from my Noor(Noor-e-Mohammad..Saw..)
The essential uniqueness in his composition was the simplicity,Cleaness and purity of thoughts and
language. While going his poetry it seems that Prakash Ram was well influenced by the sufi saints and
poets of Kashmir valley. who have bestowed greatest poetry for future generations. Most of the poets
have used Persian and Sanskrit words in their poetry but Prakash Ram did not utilize the Sanskrit and
persian idiom in order to preserve it for general people.
**** DE NA DARSHUN TI YE NA SOUN .KARSAI POOSHEH WARSHONAIE,
PRAKASH PRETH JAYEH KATEH CHARUN,SUBHUK SIRYEH RAMBEH VONOYEE,
ZALWUN THONAM NAAR LALVUN, KARSAI POOSHEH WARSHOONAI *****
Show me thy visage and visit my home,
I shall shower blossoms upon you,
Prakash is everywhrer here, where shall I search,
Moment of sunrise is heart touching,
He left me and my heart is burning,
I shall showeer blossoms upon you..
Prakash Ram had strong faith in supernatural powers of God that Control human destiny; he has
expressed in his deep feelings in many verses. He believes that God himself is a defender to defenseless
people; the people who are deprived and left alone by their relatives will take pleasure in the eternal
ecstasy; people who believed God the only protector will definitely enter heaven.
Prakash Ram Says to those who lost their parents and have none in this material world should not feel
alone because. God is the parent of all those who have none to look after them; people who are homeless
should not worry about the painful experience because any shelter which gives happiness and comfort is
an absolute home. His poetry expresses the reality of author who was well experienced about this life and
hereafter…
** HI VESS MUSHTAQ KAS GAOOM,
THAS GAOOM PETMAI PRIYARE,
POHAL TRAVITH RAMBUS GAOOM,
KEH TER KE ROED YEMPARE,
DIE RUS KAHMA TCHMAMBUS GAOOM,
THAS GAOOM PETMAI PRIYARE,
PRAKASHAS YEL HESS PIYOOM,
MAS GAW SUH SOOZ CHI TARE,
MASTAAN MASS CHEITH MAS GAOOM,
THAS GAOOM PETMAI PIYARE ***
..Oh ! My friend whom my beloved loves,
Who he left me at the dawn,
Shepherd left flock of sheep,
Some got across some did not,
None at watch may some skipped,
Who he lefty me at the dawn,
When Prakash got conscious,
He was in rapture while listening to sweet music,
My beloved drank and was fairly squiffed,
Who left me at dawn….

Prakash Ram used to spend most of time in continuous and profound contemplation of God.he was a
true lover of Shri Ram but still has written many poems about Islamic Tassawuf.Islamic Scholars. Saints
and poets used to read and listen to his wonderful
Verses. He has poetized Islamic Tassawuf as brilliantly and gracefully as great Muslim Sufi poets have
did. Going through Prakash Ram`s Writing it seems he had a Muslim Mursheed but history does not verify
anything about it..
** MASHOOK WUCH MAKH PANAI,
AZ TAN KYA WURYANAIE,
TASHOOQ GAOOM BIRYANAIE,
AZ TAN KYA WURYANAIE,
PRAKASH WUL JAMEH WAJOOD,
WAJOOD ANDRIE TCHU MAJOOD,
MAJOOD TCHU AZ RAH-E-NABOOD
AZ TAN KYA WURYANAIE.**
..Oh my beloved I saw thou,
Face to face without veil,
Thy love chopped me into pieces,
Face to face without veil,
Prakash clothed his soul with mortal body,
But is breathing within it,
The existence inside body came from deity,
Face to face without veil..
Praksh Ram has written many Leela`s and Bajans in the admiration of various Gods and
Goddess.Prakash ram Died young in his 50`s . he was very famous and had many disciples from both
Muslim and Hindu religion.
After his death quarrel started between Muslim and Hindu disciples whether Prakash Ram`s body be
buried or burned. Hindu disciples said he was a Hindu so should be burned .and Muslim disciples said he
should be buried. Then they decided to bathe the body first after that the later decision would take place.
Disciples were washing the dead body all of a sudden everyone was astonished when they saw the body
of Mursheed Prakash Ram flying in air and went away of eye sight. At the end body was not found.
People of Village Bonigam,Near by village of Quazigund says That Prakash Ram`s body took flight over
the chinar tree and touched a branch of it and went away. It is said that the branch which came in contact
with the dead body of Prakash Ram remain evergreen even in the winters when every leaf turns red but
the leaves of that branch remain flourishing in all season.

@imran yousuf


Meeting with Ahmad Sahab Machamee Abdal (R.A)
A legendary Sufi saint and a disciple of Mujadid Alif-i- Sani (R.A) AHMAD SAAB MACHAAM Sirhindi, Mursheed of famous poet of Kashmir Waza Mehmood lived the same period. When Rehmat wife of Wahab Khaar harked about the saint she travelled to him and explained the whole conditionand asked for help, Ahmad Saab Machaam replied, “It will take three years”. It was shocking Rehmat left the house of Ahmad Sahab Machaam sorrowfully, when arrived at home could not find her husband, she again left out for the seek and located Wahab Khaar all alone at the shore of Dal lake pelting stones and abusing people who pass by. He was wholly absent minded like mad wandering streets. The period of unconsciousness last for precise three years Rehmat confronted with so many difficulties in these passing years followingWahab Khaar everywhere.
Ahmad Saab Machaam said to his disciple Waza Mehmood, “Call Wahab Khaar” Waza replied, “My Mursheed he has gone mad, he pelt stones anyone who talk to him”. Ahmad Saab Machaam again said,“Call Wahab Khaar”, this time Waza Mehmood could not deny so went to call Wahab Khaar but was very afraid when reached he verbalize few words in murmuring voice, “Ahmad Saab Machaam is calling you”. When Wahab Khaar heard he did not utter a word and ran to Ahmad Saab Machaam.He had grown long hair and beard, Ahmad Saab Machaam ordered his disciples to bathe him, cleanse his clothes and cut short his hair and beard.While standing infront of Ahmad Sahab Machaam, Wahab Khaar got complete conscious back and acknowledged him as his Mursheed.
In another incident, it was winter time when WahabKhaar was invited for singing in a function held at Tral. Winter in Kashmir is chillier than ice; it is the time when Kangri (traditional fire pot) is found in everyone’s lap. Many people of the village were invited and Nambardaar of the village was also there in the function seated at valued place on a luxurious carpet. Mehfil-i-Samma was at its zenith when all of sudden Kangri in the lap of Nambardaar turned turtle and the hot burning coalfelled on the luxurious carpet. Nature of fire is to destroy by burning anything which came in contact same was anticipated, everyone was trying to collect back burning coal to save the luxurious carpet, but was impossible to save the entire carpet.Wahab Khaar did not stop singing spoke these below mentioned lines in louder voice:
Rehamkih Narehh, Satrindd Wareh
Aaz Kar Chareh Khudaya
Oh! Fire be merciful don’t blaze the carpet
Oh! God help us today
When burning coal was gathered back, it was obvious that the carpet has burned but Wahab Khaar’s miracle changed the whole ambiance, everyone present were astonished when they saw the carpet as fine as it was.
Wahab Khaar was a man blessed with great spiritual powers which he has demonstrated in every step of his life. He was wholly attached with the divine love; he was very popular among the followers of Sufism. He acquired great respect, honor and reputation among saints, poets, philosophers and writers of Kashmir.
Once Wahab Khaar was practicing his instruments accompanied by his disciples in a tree yard. Wahab Khaar was singing this Ghazal:
Ha Shair Sawaroo Kor Gasak Aakhir Tche Marun TChuie
Yee Tchuie Tche Elim Ti Meh Wantam Ti Meh Parun Tchuie
O! Lion rider where are you going, at end you haveto die
What you know, make me know, I want to know it
All of a sudden the great Kalander of time RAZAQ SAAB riding a lion came across; they were amazed seeing a man riding lion. Razaq Saab stoppedbeforeWahab Khaar let the lion to go and himself sat down beside Wahab Khaar. Razaq Saab started to smoke bhang (charas) and offered Wahab Khaar tosmell it. Wahab Khaarinhale and exhale smoke the bhang, his mind altered at the same time, he felt in love with Razaq Saab strong-willed to leave his Mursheed and became the follower of Razaq Saab.
When Ahmad Saab Machaam heard about it he got tempestuous with this doing of Razaq Saab, both became adversary of each other. Ahmad Saab Machaam could not let his dearest disciple go in thehands of any other Mursheed. He had yawning emotions and love for Wahab Khaar so he toiled hard to convey him back. Wahab Khaar remained follower of Razaq Saab for the next three years till Ahmad Saab Machaam brought him back to his service.
Kunras Kooneh Tchukh Vun Divaan, Wahab KhaaroTchukh Gam Hevaan
Kunras Peer Tareh Gam Meh Bar, Wantai Vess Yaar Vatemm Kar
Dil Heath Tchulum Su Dilbar, Wantai Vess Yaar Vatemm Kar
Why don’t you perceive the oneness, why are you bothered Wahab Khaar
You will across with the help of Mursheed, My dearwhen my beloved arrive
My love ran away with my heart, My dear when mybeloved arrive
A Mehfil-i-Samma was organized by the followers of Ahmad Saab Machaam. Mehfil was going well Peer-o-Mureed were heeding quietly. The Mursheed Ahmad Saab Machaam said to his discipleWaza Mehmood, “I need a glass of Milk”, Waza replied, “My Mursheed it is late night, it is not possible to fetch milk”. Ahmad Saab Machaam again said, “Bring some milk I need”. The disciples also replied in negative.
Wahab Khaar was asleep at his home Khrew Shaar abruptly woke up and called his wife Rehmat and said “Have we some milk” she replied in negative Wahab Khaar said her go to cow yard and get somemilk. Rehmat realized that something crucial is going on so she went and fetched some milk. After having pot of milk Wahab Khaar did not waste a second and left home in dark night to Srinagar where Mehfil-i-Samma was organized, at the time of crack of dawn he arrived knocked the door, Waza Mehmood opened the door and could not believe his eyes when he spotted Wahab Khaar at the door early in the morning before sunrise. All souls present there were speechless and stunned while seeing the spiritual connection of Mursheed with his disciple. Then Ahmad Saab Machaam said to his disciples, “He is Wahab Khaar my dearest and greatest disciple”.
Mursheedas Nish Sirr Bav To, Yee Suh Wanie Tie Apnavto
Thath Patch Kar Wahab Khaaro, Lokcharoo Yetie Rooztam
Pari Lagyoo Ha Madanwaroo, Lokcharoo Yetie Rooztam
Disclose the secrets before your Mursheed, What hesays apply it to yourself
Believe Wahab Khaar what Mursheed says, halt O! My childhood
I love you O! My darling, halt O! My childhood
Once Wahab Khaar got invitation from one of his disciples from Hariwan, who was facing some trouble and desired to say it to his Mursheed. WhenWahab Khaar arrived after having dinner the disciple said to Wahab Khaar that someone theft hiscoin container at home. Mehfil-i-Samma was going on Wahab Khaar was singing his Kalaams and suddenly sung few lines in louder tone:
Latie Hareh Lungun Nev Kami
Ammi Zooni Nevnam Bey Kammi
O! My friend who robbed the money
It is Zoon, who did it
Zoon was the name of daughter-in-law of the disciple, when she heard these words of Wahab Khaar, she sensed peril and worried because the coin container was robbed by her. At the time of dawn Wahab Khaar said everybody to go nearby Mosque to offer Fajar Nimaz. Wahab Khaar was all alone in a room when Zoon entered and acknowledged that she robbed the coin container, but the problem was that Zoon had spend money so few coins were missing from the container. Wahab Khaar kept the container with himself and asked Zoon to stay hushed. At morning when Wahab Khaar was leaving called his disciple and passed on the container back to the disciple. He was taken aback seeing the container in the hands of his Mursheed, while leaving Wahab Khaar said tothe disciple, “I am in need of few coins so I took it without your permission”. Disciple replied, “My Mursheed it is all yours whatever on earth you wishto take you can without my authorization.

•☆.•*´¨`*••♥ KaLam E sheIkhuLaLam♥•• *´¨`*•.☆•
Management is but my worship.
Deeds-virtuous art like florid over it.
Magnetic art the laws- divine to be owned.
Thus a model bountiful for others wilt one be
Life,mystic (Shariah)is, extremely delicious.
Nectar is the knowledge – divine(Haqeeqah ).
Godliness(Muari fat) is the Elixir to be quaffed.
Alarmed one shalt be to lull it.