Posts Tagged ‘truth’

AbstractKashmir since the establishment of Muslim rule had
remained an important Centre of Sufism. It acquired fame as
Raeshwar (valley of Rishis). Among the sufi saints of Medieval
Kashmir, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi occupies an important place. He
was a man of international repute for his learning, scholarship
and piety. The present paper throws a brief light on the life and
times of Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi and his literary contribution and
apart from that the paper discusses in detail the role of sufis
particularly Shaikh’s role in the Mughal conquest of Kashmir.

Index Terms– Conquest, Kashmir, Learning, Mughal, Poet,
Shaikh, Sufism,
he history of Sufism in Kashmir is spread over a long period
of time starting from Bulbul Shah to the Sufi poets of
modern age. Kashmir is known as
Reshwaer (Valley of Rishis).
Sufi saints had always been the inspiring people of Kashmir by
their subtle mystical insights. Among the well-known sufi saints
of Kashmir, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi has been the distinguished
figure not only among his contemporaries but among all the Sufis
of his age. He was displayed with the accomplishments of
learning and the perfect qualities which distinguished him as a
pious man.
1 Modern scholars call him ‘Shaikh-ul-Islam.’2 He
was a man of international reputation for his piety, scholarship
and learning. He had occupied an important place in the history
of Kashmir and during the time Akbar he was given the title
Haji Sani’.3
Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi was the most prominent Sufi saints of
sixteenth century belonging to the Kubarwiya order.
4 The
Kubarwiya order had its remarkable influence on the different
aspects of the life of Kashmiris. People in the various walks of
life used to practice Sufi-value system including
sama as
ascribed by this famous order and work for the betterment of
humanity irrespective of any consideration. haikh Yaqub Sarfi belonged to the Ganai family of
Kashmir. He was born in 928 A.H/ 1521 A.D in Srinagar.
P4F5P His
father’s name was Shaikh Hassan Ganai
P5F6P who belonged to the
Asami clan. The Asami clan traces its descent from Asim, A son
of Caliph Umar (PBUH) and it was because of this he was also
called as Asmi.
زا سفاد عاسم کہ آں نيک خو
بده ابن فاروق اعظم نِکو
گنائی لقب داشت ابن عاصمی
کشاده خدايش در
ِ گنائی است دانا بہ عرف ديار
بہ عثمان گنائی شداد يار غار
و کشمير مثلش کسے بر نخواست
زو صفش مقصر فہوم رسا است
Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi studied under Mulla Aini who came to
Kashmir from Sialkot and the later breathed here the last and is
buried in the graveyard of Shaikh Bahauddin Ganjbaksh. Mulla
Aini was the pupil of the great Mulla Abdur Rahman jami (Jam
is a place in Herat). Mulla Aini, on seeing the intelligence and
scholarly qualities of Shaikh and power to acquire the knowledge
prophesied that Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi would rise to the place of
Jami due to his literary imminence and will acquire the fame as
‘Jami Sani’ (second jami).
P7F8P About which Shaikh Yaqub has
himself given a clue in one of his verse
بعد خسرو بود جامی بلبل باغ سخن
کيست جز صرفی کنوں آں مرغ خوشخواں راعوض
After Mulla Aini, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi studied under Mulla
Basir Khan Khandbhavani.
P9F10P Thereafter Sarfi Travelled
throughout the world to quench his thirst for acquiring
knowledge. He visited the places like Sialkot, Lahore, Kabul,
Samarqand, Mashhad, Mecca, Medina etc.
Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi became the spiritual successor of the
great master Shaikh Hussain of Khawarizm and acquired honour by performing the pilgrimages to the two great holy places of
Islam (Mecca and Medina) twice in his life.12 He received from
Shaikh Ibn Hajar a license to give instructions in the traditions of
Muhammad (PBUH) and clad in the robes of a Shaikh. He
travelled much and visited most of the Shaikhs of Arabia and
Persia and profited much by his intercourse with them and
received the authority to assume prerogatives of a religious
teacher and spiritual guide and as such he had many disciples
both in Hindustan and Kashmir.13 Shaikh also got benefited by
his intercourse with the famous sufi saint Shaikh Salim Chasti of
Fatehpur Sikri. They both spent a lot of time together during the
time of Hajj which was the last Hajj of Shaikh Salim Chasti.
They both exchanged the views of their respective orders. Sheikh
Salim taught him the teachings of Chasti order and learnt from
him the teachings of Kubarwiya order.14 Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi was
also well versed with the writings of Ibn-ul-Arabi.
Apart from worldly knowledge, Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi was deeply
interested in the spiritual knowledge and for this; he spent a lot of
time in the Khankah of Mir Syed Ali Hamdani in Srinagar.P14F15P In
the Khankah, Mir Syed Ali Hamdani appeared in his dream and
asked him to go to Khawarizm and visit Makhdoom Ali Shaikh
Kamaluddin Hussain Khawarizmi. After this Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi
left for Khawarizm via Sialkot, Lahore and Kabul and presented
himself before Sheikh Khawarizmi. Sheikh Khawarizm was one
of the great sufi saints of Kubarwiya order. He received Sheikh
Yaqub Sarfi with great respect and assigned him the work to
bring wood for the langarkhana of Khankah.P15F16P After some time
Sheikh Khawarizmi gave him the permission to return back to
Kashmir and perform the religious duties and was asked to look
after his parents.P16F17P After some time he revisited Khawarizm for
the second time and from there he went to Meshhad, Khotan,
Mecca and Medina. From Mecca, he received sannad and the
necessary license to give instructions in the traditions of Hadith
from Sheikh ibn Hajjar Makki who was a renowned Sheikh and
the great teacher of Hadith.P17F18P Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi also visited
many of the cities of Hindustan like Ahmedabad, Surat etc.
where he met many of the sufi saints and obtained spiritual
knowledge from them about which he wrote.P18F19P
احمد آباد و بہر گوشہ نگارے ديگر نتواں يافت بايں حسن ديارے ديگر
کارايں خلق ہمہ عاشقی و معشوقی است کس دريں شہر نديدم بکارے ديگر
گرچہ ايں شہر پرازما ہو شان است ولے جز ابوالفتح نخواہيم نگارے ديگر
گرچہ فارغ از يا ريم آں بے پروا حاہ ل کہ شوم مائيل يارے ديگر
It is necessary to mention that apart from Sheikh Salim,
many other Sufis of Hindustan were closely associated with Sarfi
and foremost among them are Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi also
known as Mujaddid Alfi Sani (reformer of the second
millennium). He studied the traditions of Prophet and Tafsir and

also the teachings of Kubarwiya order from Sheikh Yaqub
Shaikh was a great sufi of his age. At the age of just seven,
Shaikh memorized the whole Quran.
P20F21P Abul Fazl also considers
him as the greatest authority on religious matters
P21F22P He was also a
great poet of his age. He himself writes in his
Diwan that he was
just eight years of age when he started writing poetry in
چودر سال ہشتم نہاد دم قدم
زطبعم رواں گشت شعر عجم
Abul Fazl praised him and says that he was well aquanted
with all branches of poetry.
P23F24P He wrote with the pen name of
P24F25P Mulla Abdul Qadir Badauni who was a close associate
of Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi praised him and says that he was among
the great personalities of the age. He was illustrious and relied
upon as an authority on all brancehes of learning which are
treated of in Arabic, such as Quranic commentaries, the
traditions of Prophet and Sufism. He was an authorized religious
P25F26P When Sarfi departed from Lahore to Kashmir, He wrote
a letter to Badauni from the other side of the river Ravi in which
Sheikh writes, “I hope you will not entirely efface the memory of
me from the margin of your heart and that you will adopt the
graceful habit of remembering the absent. If you should have any
need of Kashmiri paper for rough notes and drafts, I hope that
you will inform me of the fact so that I may send you from
Kashmir, the rough copy of my commentaries, the writing of
which can be washed from the paper with water so completely
that no traces of ink will remain, as you yourself have seen.”
On reaching Kashmir, Sheikh wrote another letter to Badauni
which was his last letter to him. In this letter Sheikh wrote, “I
hope that whenever you sit in Nawab Faizi’s apartment of
fragrant grass (
khas khana) on the floor, with its matting cooler
than the breezes of Kashmir, in the midday heat of summer,
drinking the water which, though originally warm, has been
cooled with ice and listening to sublime talk and witty
conversation, you will think of me, the captive of the hardships
of disappointment.”
It is an established fact that Kashmir has never been able to
produce a man, a religious scholar, a sufi saint or a poet who can
equal the place of Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi in History. He possessed a
vast worldly and spiritual knowledge and it was because of this
he is famous as
‘Jami al Kalimat Souri wal Masnavi’.P28F29P
Although, he was not involved in worldly pleasures, yet the
rulers and their nobles had respect for him. They used to listen to
his advises and practice over it.
P29F30P Humaiyun and Akbar had a
wonderful belief on him and conferred distinction on him by

dmitting him to the honour of their society, regarded him with
gracious favour, so that he was held in high estimation and much
honoured. He was generous and open handed beyond anything
that can be imagined of his contemporaries.
The number of literary works by Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi is not
known and neither all of them are available. Some of the famous
works include-
Sawati-ul-Ilham (it is an Arabic taqriz/
introduction to Faizi’s Tafsir-ul-Quran), completed a Khamsa,32
Manasik-i-Hajj,33 Sharah-Sahih al Bukhari34, Kunz-al-Jawahir,
Risala e Azkar.
35 Apart from that Sheikh Yaqub Safri is also
credited with a number of works like
Diwan-i-Sarfi36, Treatises
on the art of composing engimas and also Quatrains (
on the mysticism of sufi with a
Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi occupied an important place in the
political history of Kashmir. He was the pivotal figure behind the
Mughal conquest of Kashmir. In 1557, when Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi
was thirty-five, the Shah Miri dynasty was overthrown by the
Chaks. The Chaks traced their origins to Baltistan. Being from
outside Kashmir, they were not particularly concerned about the
welfare of the people of Kashmir. The Chak rulers persecuted the
Sunni subjects. This caused several Sunni scholars to leave
Kashmir and seek shelter elsewhere.
38 As an important Sunni
leader and scholar, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi is said to have been a
thorn in the Sultan’s flesh, and therefore, a conspiracy was
plotted to have him killed. When the Shaikh heard about the
conspiracy, he left Kashmir, and went on a long journey that took
him to Samarqand, Iran and then finally to the holy cities of
Mecca and Medina, where he spent several months in the
company of accomplished Islamic scholars, studying various
Quranic commentaries (
tafasir) and the Traditions of the Prophet
hadith). When he finally returned to Kashmir, the political
situation was grim, with the Sunnis labouring under considerable
oppression under Chak rule. Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi tried his best to
normalize the situation but that was never possible under those
circumstances. A royal decree was issued ordering that
callto prayer should be offered in shia manner and the name of
Hazrat Ali should be mentioned. Qazi Musa was killed for not
mentioning the name of Hazrat Ali in the callto prayer (
azan) and
his body was tied to the tail of an elephant and dragged through
the streets of Srinagar. This provoked the Sunnis of the town,
who rose up in protest. In order to put an end to the persecution
of the Sunnis, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi and a group of his companions

Baba Daud Khaki, Baba Ismail Anchari and Baba Mehdi
Suharwardi went to the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar at
Agra, requesting him to send an army to Kashmir and overthrow
the Chak rule.
39 In their audience with Akbar, Shaikh Yaqub
Sarfi and his companions insisted that after Akbar took over the
administration of Kashmir, he should ensure full freedom of
religion to all its people; That there should be no interference
with local commerce and trade; That no Kashmiri should be
enslaved; That the practice of beggar or compulsory labour be
abolished and that those who had been associated with the Chak
regime should be divested of their powers.
40 Akbar gave his
consent to these conditions, and then dispatched an army under
Mirza Shah Rukh against Chak ruler, in December 1585.
Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi himself accompanied this army. 42 The
Mughal invasion was more a reaction in anger than a seriously
thought-out plan, neither the season was suitable nor was the
internal conditions suitable for launching such an attack. The
leaders of the army had urge to wait for some months till the
roads are cleared of snow and should enter Kashmir through
Bhimber which was relatively a better route but Akber in haste
ordered them to march through the Pakhli route.
43 The Chaks
fought valiantly and defeated the Mughals. Then, in 1586, Akbar
sent a larger army to Kashmir, under Mirza Qasim Khan, which
inflicted a decisive defeat on the Chaks, and Yaqub Shah Chak
was forced to flee to Kishtwar, where he died in 1592. In this
way, the last independent Kashmiri dynasty came to an end, and
Kashmir was made a part of the Mughal Empire.
With the Mughal takeover of Kashmir, some Sunnis are said to
have launched stern reprisals against the Shi’as. Shaikh Yaqub
Sarfi is said to have bitterly protested against this, and is credited
with having made efforts to restore peace and communal
Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi occupies a place of prominence in the
history of Medieval Kashmir. He had acquired international
reputation for his learning, scholarship and piety. He was
displayed with the accomplishments of learning and perfect
qualities that distinguish him as the greatest sufi of his age. He
was the greatest authority of religious matters. He traveled
throughout the world to quench his thirst for knowledge. He was
the author of many sublime and beautiful works including

Khamsa, Commentaries of Quran and Hadith, Treatises,
Quatrains etc. He devoted his life to normalize the sectarian
tensions between the Shias and Sunnis of Kashmir. When the
situation was out of control he himself along with his
companions went to the court of Akbar and assured him of
necessary support for the invasion of Kashmir and when Akbar

dispatched the army Shaikh accompanied and guided them.
Above all Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi was a man for which Kashmir
feels proud. Though he did not left behind his successor because
his only son ‘Muhammad Yousuf’ died in infancy, yet Shaikh
had Khalifas/disciples throughout India and Kashmir like Mir
Muhammad Khalifa, Shah Qasim Hakkani, Arif Billah,
Habibullah Naushahri
44 etc. He died at the age of seventy- five in
1594 AD, in Srinagar. The tomb of Shaik Yaqub Sarfi attracts
visitors and is known as
from:- Sameer Ahmad Sofi
Research Scholar, CAS, Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2016

1 Abdul Qadir Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, Vol. III (tr. W.
Haig), Patna, 1973, p. 200.

2 Peerzada Muhammad Tayyab Hussain Kashmiri, Auliya e
, Nazir Publishers, Lahore, 1988, p. 38
3 Auliya e Kashmir, op. cit., p. 38
4 A.Q.Rafiqi, Sufism in Kashmir from the Fourteenth to the
sixteenth Century
, Bharatiya Publishing House, Delhi, 1984, p.

5Khawaja M. Azam Diddamari, Wakiat-i-Kashmir (Urdu
translation by Hameed Yazdani), Srinagar, 1998, p. 224

6The literal meaning of Ganai is learned man, His family was
since centuries well learned and that is why they came to be
known as Ganai, for details, see, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi,
Dewan-iSarfi, With an introduction by Mir Habibullah Kamli,
S.P.College Library, Srinagar, (1387 A.H), p. 2.

7 Ibid
8Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224; Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p.3;
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 3
10Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224; Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p.3;
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p.3; G.M.D Sufi, Kashir : Being A
History of Kashmir from Earliest Times to Our Own,
p. 360
12 Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224
13 Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, III volumes, Vol. III,
(translated and edited by Sir W. Haig), Academica Asiatica,
Patna, 1973, p. 200

Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 4.
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 4.
16 Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224; Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit.,p. 4.
17 Diddamari, op. cit, p. 225
18 For details see, Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 4.
19 Ibid, p. 5.
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 5
21 Ibid, p. 3; Diddamari, op. cit., p. 224
22 Abul Fazl, op. cit., Ain –i-Akbari, III Volumes, Vol. I, (tr.
Blochman), Low Price Publications, Calcutta, 2011, p. 191

Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 3
24 Ain-i-Akbari, vol,I, op. cit., p. 651
25 Badauni, op. cit., p. 200
26 Ibid
27 Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, p. 202.
28 Ibid, p. 203
Dewan-i-Sarfi, op. cit., p. 6.
30 Ibid
31 Badauni, op. cit., p. 201.
32 Khamsa is a series of five Masnavis also known as Panj-Gunj
which includes
Masalik ul Akhyar, Wamiq-i-Uzra, LailaMajnun, Makhaz un Nabi and Muqamat Murshid. These five
works were written in imitation of
Khamsa-i-Nizami Jami),
See Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, p. 200 n., Diddamari,
op. cit.,p. 226.

33 Manasik-i-Hajj, It is written in Arabic prose and explains the
rules and regulations of the pilgrimage.

34 It is a Persian commentary in prose on the Sahih-al-Bukhari of
Muhammad bin Ismail Bukhari.

35 This work is devoted to the importance of the Zikr and to the
legality of
36 It is a collection of Ghazals and Ruba’iyat
37 For details see Dewan-i-Sarfi, p. 6
38 Diddamari, op. cit., p. 225
39 Auliya-e-Kashmir, op. cit., p. 39; see also P.N.K.Bamzai, A
History of Kashmir: Political, Social and Cultural,
1962, p. 346

40 P.N.K.Bamzai, Op. Cit., 353
41 Abul Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, Vol. I, (Blochman), op. cit., p. 479.
42 Abul Fazl. Akbarnama, vol. III, (tr. H. Beveridge), Low price
Publications, delhi, 1939, p. 715

43 Abul Fazl. Akbarnama, vol. III, op. cit., pp. 722-23



Sheikh-ul-Alam was a great Kashmiri philosopher considered as the patron saint of Kashmiris. Sheikh ul-Alam is a saint of Reshi order who is known as Crown of the Saints of Kashmir and Flag bearer of the people of Kashmir. He is regarded as the founder of an indigenous Sufi order in fifteenth century. Sheikh-ul-Alam had not attained any conventional education but, still a great philosopher and a poet, having eternal knowledge about the existence of life. Sheikh-ul-Alam was having a sound consciousness about the reality of universe. His poetry is very influential, prestigious and esteemed at every angle. Every verse of his poetry is having a charm and conveys a message. His collection and combination of words are even unparallel. He used his poetry as an instrument to extend the true knowledge of absolute. He has used the word “Ilm” in his poetry that means knowledge which should not be confused with our often used term knowledge. His concept of knowledge is entirely different with its usual meaning. The present paper attempts to explore the word “Ilm” in his poetry which may further widen the horizon of our shrunk perception about “Ilm”. While teaching he often used the demonstration method where a person can empirically gets an opportunity to perceive a particular concept.


Keywords: Reshi, Ilm, demonstration method.


Sheikh-ul-Alam was a great Kashmiri philosopher regarded as the patron saint of people of Kashmir. He is considered as the founder of the Rishi order of saints that deeply influenced many great mystics like Sheikh Hamza Makhdoom, Resh Mir Sàeb , Shamas Faqir, Sakhi Zainu Din Wali, etc. A blessing of God unto the people of Kashmir, Sheikh ul-Alam was a saint of Reshi order who is also known as Taj-ul-Awliyai Kashmir means the Crown of theSaints of Kashmir and Alamdar-I-Kashmir means Flag bearer of the people of Kashmir. The admired saint is greatly respected by both the Hindu and Muslim communities of Kashmir. He also has to his credit for laying the foundation of an indigenous Sufi order in the fifteenth century. Reshi is a person who immerses himself into the Divine self. Speaking about the saint‟s life, Nund Reshi was born in Qaimoh (district Kulgam of Jammu and Kashmir) on Eid-ul-Adha. His parents Sheikh Salar-ud-Din and Sadra were pious, honest and sincere human beings and were well known because of their goodness. Sheikh-ul-Alam‟s parents were very much influenced by a great and prominent Sufi saint Hazrat Mir Syed Simnania. Inspired by his piety, it was through the hands of Simnania, that Sheikh-ul-Alam‟s parents embraced Islam. Sheikh-ul-Alam had not attained education through any formal or traditional mode but, still a great philosopher and a poet, having eternal knowledge about the existence of life. Whatever he acquired was the outcome of his meditation, good deeds, honesty and love for God. He wrote such powerful mystic poetry that he became the patron of saints and protector and embodiment of Kashmiri culture. The form of Sheikh-ul-Alam poetry is called SHRUK. Sheikh-ul -Alam‟s shruks are popular throughout Kashmir and have been spread and circulated orally by generations of people of Kashmir. Sheikh-ul-Alam left behind all those things which were bonded to material world. He detached all the connections which were linked to this world. He busied himself thoroughly in the remembrance of God and dedicated all his time in meditation and prayers in order to overcome and conquer the appetite of self, to strengthen the connection between him and God and to strengthen his spiritual power. Later he traveled to Kashmir remained in Charar-i-Shareef for a pretty long time where he met Syed Mir Mohammad Hamdani. Sheikh-ul-Alam was very much influenced by Syed Mir Mohammad Hamdani after having discussion with him and became the disciple of Syed Mir Mohammad Hamdani, who bestowed him the name “Alamdaar-i- Kashmir”. Sheikh-ul-Alam was quite aware about the reality of this universe; he could easily identify the mentality of a person at the very first sight. His poetry is very influential, prestigious and esteemed at every angle; every line of his poetry has its own charm and message. His collection and combination of words is unparallel. He used his poetry as a toolto spread the true knowledge of kindness beyond the borders of limitation. His verses are preserved in the Nur-Nama written by Baba Naseeb-ud-Din Ghazi in Persian. Besides Tasawuff Sheikh-ul-Alam composed poetry on different topics like the people of his time, about the time he lived, about towns and villages, about the self, about the lust of life and last but not the least about the practical education. There are number of schools, colleges, hospitals and institution in the name of Sheikh-Ul-Alam. University of Kashmir is conducting research on his poetry and philosophical thought in an exclusive research centre know as Markaz-i-Noor a centre for sheikh-ul-Alam studies. He used his poetry as tool to spread the knowledge of absolute. Tawhid (oneness of Almighty), Risala (Prophet-hood of Muhammad PBUH), Ma’ad (Materialism), human lust and importance of Education are main subjects of his poetry. He vehemently criticized the so called Mullas and other pseudo-scholars of Islam. One of his most famous and oft quoted couplets is (Kashmiri:”Ann poshi teli yeli wann poshi“) meaning ‘Food will last as long as forests last’. He was very much stressful about the conservation of environment the time when no one would even imagine about the current environmental crisis. Lal Ded the Shaivite poetess of Kashmir was his contemporary. She had a great impact on his spiritual growth. He has in one of his poems prayed to God to grant him the same level of spiritual achievement as God had bestowed on Lal Ded. (Khan, 2012) concluded not withstanding the fact that his personality has been unsheathed by myths invented by careless hagiographers, Sheikh-ul-Alam was a towering historical figure of medieval Kashmir. (Wani, 2012) revealed that of a very few subjects of Kashmir history, which has stimulated exceptional great scholarly attention, Sheikh-ul-Alam and his founded Rishi Movement occupies a prominent place. Yet, the corpus of literature produced on the Shaikh and his silsila (order) rests on a shaky ground in the absence of an authentic text of the poetry of the Shaikh which constitutes the basic source of his life and teachings. (Shah, 2012) conducted that the result of a study of the poetry of Sheikh-ul-Alam one of the most venerated and well acclaimed Sufi saints of Kashmir, which finally led to compilation of an inventory of plant species mentioned therein, with the broad objective to recuperate traditional botanical wisdom for sustainable development. The list of plant species is presented along with their brief description and pictorial support for understanding of common people. The conspectus of plant species is of significance, not only to provide useful insights into important floristic elements of that particular era, but also to rejuvenate the sense of species sacredness for their conservation. Such studies, if extrapolated for other regions in a multicultural nation like India, can potentially yield an invaluable traditional ecological knowledge base for conservation of sacred species. (Zaffar, 2012) Shaikh ul Alam was a man with increased knowledge and understanding which he himself Claims in one of his Shruks. The most effective means which made his movement pervasive throughout the Valley was common man‟s language and the genre he used to bring home to the people his message. He was very much concerned about the artistic and aesthetic elements in his poetry. In spite of being didactic in nature Shruks are loaded with artistic and aesthetic elements which bring more and more beauty in his verses. Therefore to understand and interpret his poetry one has to be more cautious, technical and skillful.


Concept of Ilmin the poetry of Sheikh-ul-Alam

“Ilm parith tae parith na palan Pheng payi lalan gash kati aasee

“Just acquiring of knowledge without following it in a practical sense would make a person blind with eyes”. We today are having a lot of knowledge just for the sake of knowledge. The real motive of having knowledge in the past was to practice all that we know. Today is the period of value crisis even having a very impressive literacy rates in developed and developing countries. More we gained the knowledge more we get deviated from the path of practicing values. The Sheikh mostly stressed over practicing knowledge. He considers a person blind who is not following the knowledge he has gained.

“Paran paran te par gayee Tim khar gayee kitab borah hayeth

Yim sahibas nish bakhabar gayee Tim nar gayee fazal ta ata hayeth”

The so called students who get education not in a real sense just as a formality are like donkeys carrying burden of books on their shoulders. But the students who realize their self and are very much aware about their heart are more successful.

“Yath waw haley czhong kus zale Tale kani zaleas alim ta deen”

Who is going to light a lamp in these heavy stormy and windy nights of ignorance, it‟s the only education and religious practices that can do it in real sense. He considered the ignorance as the strongest storm in the world that can damage the structure of humanity. He is saying that knowledge is the only lamp which will put an end to strong winds of ignorance.

Sheikh-ul-Alam and Demonstration method

Once Sheikh-ul-Alam was invite to a feast to accept an invitation is a part of teaching of prophet (PBUH) so he could not deny and went to the house of host wearing shabby clothes. Gate keeper did not recognize him and was not allowed to enter the party. He went home back and came again but now wearing new clothes. When all had sat for the lavish dinner, Sheikh-ul-Alam entered wearing a stunning cloak and was provide the position of admiration. When everybody started to take food Sheikh-ul-Alam extended out his sleeves and put them onto the plates full of food, people surrounded got surprised and asked him the reason, Sheikh-ul-Alam replied: Kheyev Badev Narew Kheyev ,Eat you rich clothes eat “

The feast was not for poor like me, it is for the wealthy who dress in rich clothes and long sleeves. In education this method of teaching is called demonstration method. The people at party were able to perceive the concept and his criticality by experience.


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Research by:-

Mirza Muneeb Manan* Sayar Ahmad Mir**

Research Scholar Research Scholar

School of Education and Training Department of English

MANUU, Hyderabad MANUU, Hyderabad

Presented at:-

International Conference on Recent Research and Innovations in Social Science & Education

19th May 2018

Genealogy of Alamdar-e- Kashmir…
The Paradisal pleasance of Kashmir does not merely mean the beauty and symmetry which this sphere of the globe
possesses but in fact means the grandeur of its inhabitants who have made its surroundings so fragrant that the
perfumes evaporated to vast areas of human habitations and atmospheres. From time immemorial the milky way of
the firmament of Kashmir did possess glittering stars emitting fluorescence to remove the stygian darkness amid
the terrains and lofty areas of the terrene. The brightest star appeared on the firmament in the shape of Sheikh Noor
ud Din who is the lone son of the soil enjoying the status of a flag bearer (Alamdar), besides the great sheikh of the
Sheikh is said to have been born on Friday the 25th Rabiul Awal, 774 Hijri corresponding to 24th of September 1373
A.D. The genealogy displayed by Naseeb ud Din Ghazi (disciple of Sheikh) is as under:
Raja Ogra Sanz……… Drupta Sanz……… Zanga sanz…………. Hunar Sanz…….. Wogra Sanz……….. Salar Sanz………. Nund
Mohi ud din Miskeen the well known author of “Tarikhi Kabir” states that the ancestors of this great man belonged
to Kishtwar area of Jammu & Kashmir and were the rulers enjoying the valorous state of Sanz -¬ The brave. Owing
to political instability in the region they migrated to this part of the region. The then rulers of Kashmir did not only
grant them the refuge but also granted them the fief dom of Rupvan, a village in North-East region of Chrar-i-Shareif,
03kms away from the township. Miskeen Jots down that Zanga Sanz the great grandfather of Sheikh was an
advisor to Khumni- a great grocer and ruler of village Tilsara located in the Eastern side of Chrar-i-Sharief 02kms
away from the town. Khumni was murdered in the upheaval of Dalchu and Hunnar Sanz the son of Zanga Sanz
remained hidden in dark dense forests of Chrar-i-Sharief which was then known as “Tsrar Van”. After confinement
among conifers did he appear in village “Gud Sathu” situated at Chadoora Budgam road and got settled there. Salar
sanz the beloved father of Sheikh was influenced by Yasmin Rishi and accepted Islam & was named as Salar ud Din.
Though historians are mum and mute about Salar sanz but the verse revealed by Sheikh implies his prosperity and
affluence as he says,
“Kaimoh kis Salar-dins….. Yes dowlatch manz boud aayie”
Means Salar-ud-din the inhabitant of kaimoh deserves felicitations as he yielded among riches to adopt the doctrine
of Islam .This proves that sheikh was nourished and cherished in a well-to-do family with all luxuries and dainties,
rejecting the concocted stories designed and devised for him. Sheikh’s mother a pious and noble lady did hail from
“khee” a village of in kulgam District. Historians have highlighted only the spiritual conduct of Sheikh and have
ignored his other dimensions of life which include his scholarly behaviour, linguistic approach, researcher’s aptitude,
philosophical temperament and missionary zeal. The tide of time has masticated his scientific innovations which
are eminent from his Kalam.
The details can have from my paper on scientific aptitude of this great man which I delivered in university of
Kashmir on 03 day international seminar on Shah-i- Hamdan’s contribution to learning & society. The paper is
published in local daily of Kashmir Frontier of 15 March 2012.
Falsified stories have been attributed to this man by our historians and writers either due to political hedges or
timely tides which is a separate debatable discussion. Sheikh proved sharp witted from the early childhood and did
posses a capacious brain to feel and catch temperamental beats and throbs of the time. He was a great philosopher
and a true time server of his time. He happened to be a great scholar and had a full command on knowledge. His
linguistic aptitude shows his majesty and stateliness. His multidimensional personality is the outcome of his multi
phased poetry which proves to be the sole alchemy for refinement of a multi shaped creature like man. His poetry
seems to be a perfect medicament, a complete therapy and a well known remedy for ailing and failing human souls
& spirits at different times and occasions.
Once the verses revealed makes a man to feathers for aerial trips but thereby abides him to drupe down to dust to
abide and adore one omniscient and omnipotent lord. His appeal for killing one’s appetite from worldly charms &
beauties do teach and preach the man the modes and styles of this world and world after. He analyses the different
aspects of life with scientific and innovative modes and moments. His message does not pertain to a sect of society but the humanity as a whole. His plain and chaste phrases undoubtedly sensitize the human intelligentsia
and makes a man to shun his lustful behaviour and to get accelerated for human aid and help. His verses act as
stimulants for secretions of wit and wisdom for thought full innovations of this living world and he proved to be the
best annotator of Quran.
Sheikh was a great missionary and he started missionary schools for both the genders of the society across the
length and breadth of his native land. Trained missionaries were plotted to disseminate the theology of Islam to the
grass root level. For its percolation he used the soft, sweet and candid sap of his mother tongue which created a
vigorous pressure to accelerate the human wit and will. Hardly a place is found in the entire terrain where the sole of
Shiekh would not have enjoyed the bill and coo of the soil/dust.
A like a jeweller, Sheikh with the art & craft of wit & winsome designed a long chain of his followers who in close
association with the society taught the people the essence of great religion. Such grooming did create a bonton
atmosphere around the Alps and dales of Kashmir. Among these followers; comrades like Latif ud Din, Zain ud din,
Bam ud din & Nassar ud din, Dhut Ded, Shanga bi & Sala Bi are of great importance. Sheikh is said to have remained
stationed for a long time at Draigam in Budgam, Chimmar in Devsor, Hoonchipora in Beerwah and Rup Van in Chrar-
i-Sharief Budgam. Besides he had brief visits to almost all the parts of Kashmir. Sheikh during his life selected Chrar-
i-Sharief as a permanent abode where he was laid for eternal peace in 842 A.H corresponding to 1438AD.

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Sir 12139621_1198617893497877_405509982_nG N Adfar
Rozabal, Char-i-Sharief
Cell: 9419003402

25591565_2001688770087024_5724988426300741392_nPrakash Ram Bhatt is one of the reputed Kashmiri Sufi poets of the 9th century .Prakash Ram well
known poet of Kashmir worthy of appreciation for his impression, spectacular and simple writings.
Prakash Ram was a devotee of Shri Rama, Prakash Ram was born in 1819 Kawarigam, a small village
Qauzi gund and he left for his eternal journey at his native place 1877.Prakash Ram was born in the house
of Mezrah Pandith,Mezrah Pandit the father Of Prakash Ram was an illiterate person but sent his son to
the Madrasa (school) for acquire knowledge .Merzah Pandit being uneducated person was very keen
about his child`s education. From the childhood Prakash Ram was honesty and pious. He was a reserved
man and used to speak less and most of the time remained alone. Prakash Ram was one of Greatest
devotees of Lord Shri Ram and due to this fondness. he penned The Ramayana in two Kashmiri language
and name it Rama Avatar charyit and Lav Khush charyit. This Ramayana became first epic Poetry ever
Written in Kashmiri and the most important contribution to the kashmiri literature . The Ramayana got
renowed throughout Kashmir particularly Kashmiri pandits. Prakash Ram has also written Akanandun and
krishanavtaar Lila and as such he got reorganization in every corner of the valley because of
Ramayana.Prakash Ram has used the name Shri Ram`s family in many of his poems like kind Dashratha
(father) Mother koushaliya,Laxmana,Bharath etc. Koushaliya hindeh gobroo,karoo goore goore,Paryo ram
ramie ,Karoo goore goore,meh depyamie rama rajia,Khoush aawie ni woureh maajeh,Aadnek seer
baajia,,Karoo goore goorem,Atchen hund gaash kout gaoom,Seryeh Prakash kout gaoom kehnti tchem
neh aash kout gaoom,,Karoo goore goore. Prakash Ram lived a simple life which is also observed in his
poetry,his verses simple in style with trouble-free words.this quality made him unknown among general
masses of valley. Once Praksh Ram as usual was praying and was singled in devine meditation.All of
sudden Goddess Bhagvati got appeared ahead of him.Prakash Ram stunned to see Goddess Bhagvati
footing infront of him.Goddess Baghvati said,I love u being for so simple and isolated from this world in
the contemplation of God and you should meet me tommarrow at ~Reid Naag~ (a famous spring of the
village where Goddess baghvati used to dwell).Prakash Ram was joyous and could explain this felicity
and anxiously waiting for the day.Next Day Prakash Ram arrived at `Reid Naag` to meet Goddess
Baghvati.Goddess Baghvati again go visible before him with a bowl of honey in her hand. She offered the
honey to Prakash Ram to eat it.Prakash Ram received willingly and ate the honey.After the meeting with
Goddess,Prakash Ram commenced his daily conducts as usual but an emergent transformation was
sensed by him.Till the meet he was a good poet but after Prakash Ram was incredible,he started to write
down Poems with great profundity,meaning and rhythm,Goddess Bhagvati bestowed him enormous
power of thinking and writing. Gaoom Travith Dil tchum Meh Dazaan, Tchum Neh Wazaan Sitaare Nayee,
Siryeh Prakashi Kartam Yon Payaee, Laie Woath Tiem Tachi Tali Krayaee, Pashe Panne Tchet Tchet Tchet
Neeraan, Tchum Neh Wazaan Sitaar Nayee… Prakash Ram being a Hindu Written verses which are being reited by Muslim Sufi in Mehfil-i-Samma functions.Parkash Ram was amystic poet,who enjoyed his life in
divine company. From early age he was extremely attracted to spiritual deeds which he agained through
consecrated efforts in the path of love.Parkash Ram was reasonably influenced by Islamtoo;he has
poetized beautiful lines in the grand and idealistic nobility of Prophet Muhammad..saw…in these lines he
mentions the begining creation of the universe.. Aashiq Tche zindeh Roozan Loluk Quran per perh,
Beshak Kar-i-Irfan Thavaan Bayan ker kerh, Awalie Ishq Tchu Tashooq Panuie Gatchum Meh Mashooq, Ad
kurnie Padeh Nooraan,Muhammad .Saw. Naw Ker Kerh, Prakash Bhat Tchuie Miskeen,Peerus Kaaran
Afreen; Chaw Tam Meh Moie Piyapie Moie Khaan Tchi Tche Ber Berh.(Loves are Breathing coz they
believe love as Quran undoubtedly utter about oneness of God In the begining God fell in love anad craved
to see his beloved Then he created The Noor, Named it Muhammad .SAW. PRakash Bhatt is
poor,extolments his murshid Make me drink of divinity,thy cantina is fully sated) . In the above mentioned
lines clear that Prakash Ram had deep Knowledge,awareness and understanding about The Holy quran
and Holy Ahadith As Prophet Muhammad.Saw. say: .Ana min Noor-il-Lahhin Wal Khalku Kulhum Min
Noori.(The first creation of All Mighty is the creation of my NOOR from his own Noor and latter whatever
is Created is created from my Noor(Noor-e-Mohammad..Saw..)
The essential uniqueness in his composition was the simplicity,Cleaness and purity of thoughts and
language. While going his poetry it seems that Prakash Ram was well influenced by the sufi saints and
poets of Kashmir valley. who have bestowed greatest poetry for future generations. Most of the poets
have used Persian and Sanskrit words in their poetry but Prakash Ram did not utilize the Sanskrit and
persian idiom in order to preserve it for general people.
Show me thy visage and visit my home,
I shall shower blossoms upon you,
Prakash is everywhrer here, where shall I search,
Moment of sunrise is heart touching,
He left me and my heart is burning,
I shall showeer blossoms upon you..
Prakash Ram had strong faith in supernatural powers of God that Control human destiny; he has
expressed in his deep feelings in many verses. He believes that God himself is a defender to defenseless
people; the people who are deprived and left alone by their relatives will take pleasure in the eternal
ecstasy; people who believed God the only protector will definitely enter heaven.
Prakash Ram Says to those who lost their parents and have none in this material world should not feel
alone because. God is the parent of all those who have none to look after them; people who are homeless
should not worry about the painful experience because any shelter which gives happiness and comfort is
an absolute home. His poetry expresses the reality of author who was well experienced about this life and
..Oh ! My friend whom my beloved loves,
Who he left me at the dawn,
Shepherd left flock of sheep,
Some got across some did not,
None at watch may some skipped,
Who he lefty me at the dawn,
When Prakash got conscious,
He was in rapture while listening to sweet music,
My beloved drank and was fairly squiffed,
Who left me at dawn….

Prakash Ram used to spend most of time in continuous and profound contemplation of God.he was a
true lover of Shri Ram but still has written many poems about Islamic Tassawuf.Islamic Scholars. Saints
and poets used to read and listen to his wonderful
Verses. He has poetized Islamic Tassawuf as brilliantly and gracefully as great Muslim Sufi poets have
did. Going through Prakash Ram`s Writing it seems he had a Muslim Mursheed but history does not verify
anything about it..
..Oh my beloved I saw thou,
Face to face without veil,
Thy love chopped me into pieces,
Face to face without veil,
Prakash clothed his soul with mortal body,
But is breathing within it,
The existence inside body came from deity,
Face to face without veil..
Praksh Ram has written many Leela`s and Bajans in the admiration of various Gods and
Goddess.Prakash ram Died young in his 50`s . he was very famous and had many disciples from both
Muslim and Hindu religion.
After his death quarrel started between Muslim and Hindu disciples whether Prakash Ram`s body be
buried or burned. Hindu disciples said he was a Hindu so should be burned .and Muslim disciples said he
should be buried. Then they decided to bathe the body first after that the later decision would take place.
Disciples were washing the dead body all of a sudden everyone was astonished when they saw the body
of Mursheed Prakash Ram flying in air and went away of eye sight. At the end body was not found.
People of Village Bonigam,Near by village of Quazigund says That Prakash Ram`s body took flight over
the chinar tree and touched a branch of it and went away. It is said that the branch which came in contact
with the dead body of Prakash Ram remain evergreen even in the winters when every leaf turns red but
the leaves of that branch remain flourishing in all season.

@imran yousuf

“Yemi wati pakaan soan Sardaarﷺ
Temi wati yiwaan mushik’in daar
Mushik seeth parznov Rauz-e-Mahshar
Kyah chu soan mushik-daar paygambarﷺ.”
– A Kashmiri Naat Shareef
(Through whichever way our Masterﷺ walks
The whole path becomes fragrant due to himﷺ
On the day of reckoning we will recognize him from his fragrance
See the grandeur of our fragrant Nabiﷺ)
“When RasoolAllahﷺ walked down a road, anyone who happened to pass
along the same road knew RasoolAllahﷺ had been there due to hisﷺ fragrance.”
Khasaais Al-Kubra : Imaam Jalal-ud-din Suyuti, v.1, p.142

All praise and all gratitude is due to Allah subhana wa ta’ala. Gratitude amounting to the number of rahamat (mercies which Allah subhana wa ta’ala sent down upon us), amounting to the number of divine gazes, which He sent down upon us, amounting to the number of times He has extended His help and extended His divine favors and extended the rope of connection with Him. There is no one worthy of worship but Him. All forms of assistance can only come from Him. Any kind of assistance comes only from Allah subhana wa ta’ala. He is the one who sends down divine favors (fudul). May the best of salutations be upon the Prophet Muhammad sallalahu ‘aleihi wasallim. May we be granted the gaze of the Prophet sallalahu ‘aleihi wasallim on the Day of Judgment. May we be granted the happiness in seeing him on the Day of Judgment. May Allah allow us to serve Him in the dunya so that we can be become true and sincere servants of Allah.
May Allah purify our souls. Once the nafs becomes purified, it becomes illuminated. Once it’s illuminated, it becomes like a priceless jewel (what value do you place on such a nafs which has become purified and perfected before Allah subhana wa ta’ala?). May Allah allow us to purify and illuminate our souls and nufus (so that we became these jewels of iman).
Imam Al Ghazali is someone who possesses true sincerity. Imam Al Ghazali is addressing us in this book as a compassionate father.
Returning to advice of Imam Al Ghazali:Hadith: “Verily Allah looks to your hearts and your intentions”.
o Allah gazes toward the heart and looks for 4 things:
1) intention, 2) servanthood, 3) vision, 4) what place Allah has in your heart (wujudu fi qalbik)
The only thing that benefits is that which reaches the heart
o This book prepares you for closeness with Allahsubhana wa ta’ala. These advices are only given to those who are seeking purification. Whatever it is you have sacrificed in your life, Allah selects only that which penetrated your heart.
o The fruit of outward action should reside in the heart. Whatever action you did with an awe of Allah, this is what Allah selects as beneficial actions for your heart.
La ilaha illa Allah
ola maghbud illa Allah – none worthy of worship except Allah.
If you engage in sins then there is a question about your sincerity (you’re following the whims and wishes of your own nafs and this particular qualification is not present in you)
o la maqsut illa Allah
o la mashhut illa Allah
Prophet Musa
o First level: I’m Allah. Worship Me and establish salat for My remembrance.
o Next level: I created you for Me
*May Allah create us for Him. Ameen.May Allah allow us to enter into this group. Even though our lives are so short, the madad (divine assistance from Allah) is huge. Those who existed before this ummah were predominantly kuffar (they did not benefit at all from divine assistance). Allah sends His divine assistance and the one who is open to receive it can get all of rahamat (units of divine mercy). This is especially applicable to those who pray at night. Even if you don’t get up, but you have the intention you still receive the madad.
* It was the will of Allah to end the dunya with this ummah (the best of people). It all comes down to how you end the race. Jannah (8 gates) is more expansive then Jahannam (7 gates). The number of people in Jannah is few, but Jahannam is full of people.
o Qur’an:The day when We say to Jahannam, are you full? Jahannam replies, are there any more?
o Jahannam will be mostly filled with people of the previous nations. There are 120 rows of people entering into Jannah and 80 rows will be from the people of the Prophet Muhammad sallalahu ‘aleihi wasallim. So most of the people in Jannah will be from the ummah of the Prophet. May Allah make us of those people who will enter in the first row. Ameen.
If you make just a small effort you will receive abundant amount of assistance from Allah, because Prophet Muhammad is making duah for you and istighfar for you. Allah will surely answer the duah of the Prophet. Look the rahma that is in the heart of the Prophet for his ummah. He will be the one who will approach Allah to intercede for his ummah and Allah allows him to intercede.
Sahabi asked the Prophet a very intelligent question, where can I find you on the Day of Judgment, ya Rasul Allah?The Prophet replied: 1) Scales – mizan, 2) Bridge – sirat, 3) Pond – haud.
1) Mizan
o You will feel so alone at mizan that you will wish someone would be there to help you. The Prophet will be there during the weighing of deeds to bring you comfort.
o There will be a lot of loneliness on the Day of Judgment. Everyone will run away from you, because everyone is concerned for his own self. The Prophet will be the only one who will not leave you. Allah said, We will not disappoint you with your ummah. Allah does not wish to disappoint the Prophet on the Day of Judgment with his ummah.
2) Sirat
o The pulpit of the Prophet will be at the sirat. We will cross the sirat one by one. The Prophet will be at the pulpit gazing at you hoping that you cross the sirat. He will be saying “O Allah, bring him to safety”. You see the Prophet before you cross the sirat (to provide ease for you).
3) Haud
o You will drink from the hand of the Prophet until your thirst is satiated.
o Kauthar – water that is whiter than milk and it’s taste is similar to honey (very sweet)
At this point, Habib Umar usually says [to his students] take advantage of your life, take advantage of this majlis, it could be that it becomes your treasure on the Day of Judgment
The one who loves and yearns for the Prophet sallalahu ‘aleihi wasallim surely will take comfort in seeing him at the time of death (just like we get to see him at the mizan, sirat and haud). The Prophet gave an opportunity to all Muslims to see him in this dunya (in dreams). Successful are the ones who get a chance to see the Prophet in their dream. Your heart has to be in a particular spiritual state to be able to receive that vision.
1) Outwardly:
o Fulfill the adab and the etiquettes of sleeping (wudu, sleeping on your right, reading duah, using miswak and etc).
2) Inwardly:
o No cheating or lying to Muslims.
o No hatred in your heart towards any Muslim.
o No envy towards any Muslim.
o No kibr (arrogance) towards anyone.
If you have any of these characteristics then you’re not ready to see the Prophet.
o Forgive anyone who wronged you. If you want Allah to forgive you, you need to forgive others.
o If Allah allows you to wake up from your sleep, have the intention to serve the Muslim ummah. Have this intention before going to bed.
§ We’re weak when it comes to our loved ones. May Allah grant us the love of the Prophet subhana wa ta’ala. Hints to prepare yourself for sleep:
o Read a portion of the seerah or shamail before sleeping;
o Put on some musk on your cheeks;
o Do not sleep with any clothing that is najas (if you are able to);
o Ensure that your clothing does not contain any pictures of human beings or animals and no words of people;
o Make sure that your nails are clipped;
o Engage in salawat/dhikr;
o Write on a piece of paper Muhammad in Arabic (the more you gaze at it, the more it affects your heart; the name usually guides to the named);
o Avoid the consumption of doubtful food;
o Try to eat what the Prophet used to eat. Habib Umar likes to eat food that is mentioned in the Qur’an (there are secrets in these foods if Allah mentions them in the holy Qur’an). The Prophet enjoyed drinking milk or having dates mixed with milk. The Prophet also used to like pumpkin. Try to eat in fashion similar to the Prophet so that you resemble him as much as possible. Eat the food with intention of resembling the Prophet (not just to satisfy appetite or fill the stomach).
§ There is no doubt that we all love the Prophet sallalahu ‘aleihi wasallim.
o It requires sabr and patience.

Know, O dear readers, that the medicine of a disease is to remove the
root cause of that disease. Isa (Jesus Christ) -peace be upon him-
was once asked: ‘What thing is difficult?’ He said: ‘God’s wrath.’
Prophet Yahya (John the Baptist) -peace be upon him- then asked:
‘What thing takes near the wrath of God?’ He said:’Anger’. Yahya –
peace be upon him- asked him:’What thing grows and increases anger?’
Isa -peace be upon him- said:’Pride, prestige, hope for honour and
The causes which cause anger to grow are self-conceit, self-praise,
jests and ridicule, argument, treachery, too much greed for too much
wealth and name and fame. If these evils are united in a person, his
conduct becomes bad and he cannot escape anger.
So these things should be removed by their opposites. Self-praise is
to be removed by modesty. Pride is to be removed by one’s own origin
and birth, greed is to be removed by remaining satisfied with
necessary things, and miserliness by charity.
The prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: ‘A strong man is not
he who defeats his adversary by wrestling, but a strong man is he who
controls himself at the time of anger.’
We are describing below the medicines of anger after one gets angry.
The medicine is a mixture of knowledge and action. The medicine based
on knowledge is of six kinds:
(1) The first medicine of knowledge is to think over the rewards of
appeasing anger, that have come from the verses of the Quran and the
sayings of the Prophet (pbuh). Your hope for getting rewards of
appeasing anger will restrain you from taking revenge.
(2) The second kind of medicine based on knowledge is to fear the
punishment of God and to think that the punishment of God upon me is
greater than my punishment upon him. If I take revenge upon this man
for anger, God will take revenge upon me on the Judgement Day.
(3) The third kind of medicine of anger based on knowledge is to take
precaution about punishment of enmity and revenge on himself. You
feel joy in having your enemy in your presence in his sorrows, You
yourself are not free from that danger. You will fear that your enemy
might take revenge against you in this world and in the next.
(4) Another kind of medicine based on knowledge is to think about the
ugly face of the angry man, which is just like that of the ferocious
beast. He who appeases anger looks like a sober and learned man.
(5) The fifth kind of medicine based on knowledge is to think that the
devil will advise by saying: ‘ You will be weak if you do not get
angry!’ Do not listen to him!
(6) The sixth reason is to think: ‘ What reason have I got to get
angry? What Allah wishes has occurred!’
Medicine based on action
When you get angry, say: I seek refuge in God from the accursed evil
(A’oudhou billaahi min as shaytaan ir rajeem). The prophet (pbuh)
ordered us to say thus.
When Ayesha (RA) got angry, he dragged her by the nose and said: ‘ O
dear Ayesha, say: O God, you are the Lord of my prophet Muhammad,
forgive my sins and remove the anger from my heart and save me from
If anger does not go by this means, you will sit down if you are
standing, lie down if you are sitting, and come near to earth, as you
have been created of earth. Thus make yourself calm like the earth.
The cause of wrath is heat and its opposite is to lie down on the
ground and to make the body calm and cool.
The prophet (pbuh) said: Anger is a burning coal. Don’t you see your
eyebrows wide and eyes reddish? So when one of you feels angry, let
him sit down if standing, and lie down if sitting.
If still anger does not stop, make ablution with cold water or take a
bath, as fire cannot be extinguished without water.
The prophet (pbuh) said : ‘ When one of you gets angry, let him make
ablution with water as anger arises out of fire.’ In another
narration, he said:’ Anger comes from the devil and the devil is made
of fire.’
Hazrat Ali (RA) said:
The prophet did not get angry for any action of the world. When any
true matter charmed him, nobody knew it and nobody got up to take
revenge for his anger. HE GOT ANGRY ONLY FOR TRUTH.
Al-Ghazali Abu Hamid